AMERICA BECOMING

Racial Trends and Their Consequences

Volume II

Neil J.Smelser, William Julius Wilson, and Faith Mitchell, Editors

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II AMERICA BECOMING Racial Trends and Their Consequences Volume II Neil J.Smelser, William Julius Wilson, and Faith Mitchell, Editors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The study was supported by Grant No. SBR-9709489 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation through interagency agreements with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Transportation Statistics/U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Labor, Environmental Protection Agency, Economic Research Service/U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Institute of Justice/U.S. Department of Justice, President’s Initiative on Race, Social Security Administration, U.S. Department of Treasury, and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The Mellon and Mott foundations provided additiona support. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2001). America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume II. Neil J.Smelser, William Julius Wilson, and Faith Mitchell, Editors. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data America becoming: racial trends and their consequences/Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council ; Neil Smelser, William Julius Wilson, and Faith Mitchell, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-06839-8 (v. 2) —ISBN 0-309-06840-1 (v. 2: pbk.) 1. United States—Race relations—Research—Congresses. 2. United States—Ethnic relations—Research—Congresses. 3. United States—Population—Statistics—Congresses. 4. Minorities—United States—Social conditions—Research—Congresses. 5. Minorities—United States—Economic conditions—Reasearch—Congresses. I. Smelser, Neil J. II. Wilson, William J., 1935- III. Mitchell, Faith. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. E184.A1 A497 2000 305.8'00973—dc21 00–010549 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 Call (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. William A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II COMMISSION ON BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND EDUCATION Neil J.Smelser, Chair (NAS), Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Robert H.Bates, Department of Government, Harvard University Alfred Blumstein (NAE), H.John Heinz School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University Jacquelynne Eccles, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Stephen E.Fienberg (NAS), Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University Baruch Fischhoff (IOM), Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University John F.Geweke, Department of Economics, University of Iowa Christopher S.Jencks (NAS), John F.Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Eleanor E.Maccoby (NAS, IOM), Department of Psychology, Stanford University Cora B.Marrett, Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Provost, University of Massachusetts Barbara J.McNeil (IOM), Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School Robert A.Moffitt, Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University Richard J.Murnane, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University T.Paul Schultz, Department of Economics, Yale University Kenneth A.Shepsle (NAS), Department of Government, Harvard University Richard M.Shiffrin (NAS), Psychology Department, Indiana University Burton H.Singer (NAS), Office of Population Research, Princeton University Catherine E.Snow, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University Marta Tienda, Office of Population Research, Princeton University David B.Tyack, School of Education, Stanford University

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Foreword Christopher Edley, Jr. The President’s Race Initiative was launched in June 1997 in the belief that no challenge facing the nation as it enters the new century is as critical and daunting as the challenge of color. Around the world and throughout human history, there have been countless tragedies born of our seemingly innate tendencies toward misunderstanding, distrust, resentment, prejudice, hatred, and even violence—all triggered by racial, ethnic, tribal, and religious differences. It would be hubris to believe that Americans have somehow escaped this human condition, miraculously healed and henceforth immune from our own color-based brand of tribalism. We are unlikely in the next few years to face the upheavals of ethnic cleansing familiar from the Balkans and Central Africa, or the slow burn of ethnicity-based conflict and even terrorism we have witnessed in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Northern Ireland, Spain, Mexico, and countless other places. The growth of America’s diversity is breathtaking. However, unless we in the United States do better to confront and bind our racial and ethnic divisions, the powerful legacy of racial caste will shackle our progress and rend our communities. Our secular catechism of equality and justice for all, authored at the nation’s birth, was belied by practices at the time. Yet these remain the powerful ideals to which we aspire, at least in our nobler moments, and without regard to political party or social status. One could even argue that the essence of being an American has much more to do with allegiance to our conceptions of justice and fairness than it does to proficiency in a common language or devotion to some vague set of cultural practices. (Baseball? Apple pie? Some religion? Television?) When Ameri-

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II cans express patriotic pride, we may mention our relative prosperity or some iconic character trait such as self-reliance. But more likely, we boast about our civic institutions and, especially, civic values such as equality and tolerance. Racial caste in this land is more than twice as old as the nation itself. It began with the campaigns of displacement, killing, and subjugation of native peoples by European settlers, and then expanded to the chattel slavery of imported Africans. Because the roots of American prejudice and racism are some 250 years deeper than the bedrock of our constitutional ideals, it would be yet another form of hubris to believe that the legacy can be undone in a mere generation or two, and the wounds healed. Nonetheless, healing with unflagging determination is precisely what we must be about. The first step must be a better understanding of our history and our present condition. This is where the leaders of the social sciences have an indispensable contribution to make. The Race Initiative asked the National Research Council of the National Academies to provide the nation with an authoritative assessment of where we are. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences is the result. America Becoming details demographic changes that have moved America beyond Black and White into a complex multiethnic environment that we still do not understand. Disparities, discrimination, progress, and retrogression within this multilayered economic and social environment demonstrate that the color question is pervasive in our lives, and it is an explicit tension or at least subtext in countless policy debates. These debates range from K-12 school improvement, to criminal justice, to reinvention of the health care system. The premise is that rational explication, based in research, can make a difference in the pursuit of our ideals. There is, unfortunately, substantial evidence to the contrary when it comes to race and ethnicity. The difficulties are of many sorts. These volumes amply illustrate that there is no shortage of factual, methodological, and conceptual challenges in studying “race” —itself a contingent social construct, rather than a fixed biological or anthropological one. They also illustrate that the research enterprise, try as we might, is almost inextricably tied to our politics—to the currents of public values, interests, and debates. There are contestable judgments implicit in the choice of data we decide to keep, the subjects scholars choose to investigate (and that can attract funding), the questions and variables researchers select, the interpretations and application of the research findings, and so forth. All of this means that research related to race has been the victim of the public’s decreased interest in civil rights in the past 25 years, and that even sound research results have often been viewed through lenses shaped by political or ideological agendas.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II In the complex agenda of color and ethnicity, it is vital that researchers contribute to a reengagement of both the public and the research community, despite the difficulties and risks. In these papers, researchers repeatedly identify important questions requiring further research. The greatest success of America Becoming will be in providing the impetus for a reinvigoration of the social scientific commitment to the cause of racial and ethnic justice: to answer and raise questions, to guide and critique policy actors, to take stock, and, especially, to teach. America Becoming will be instrumental in feeding thoughtful debate. There is ample nourishment here, to be sure, and one can find in the media and countless communities and institutions reason to hope that the appetite for serious civic discourse on the matter of race is on the rise. In colleges and universities, to take one example, dialogues on race have proliferated, and one must hope that a resurgence of sophisticated course offerings in this field will be a signal achievement of this decade. As we prepare students to live and lead in increasingly diverse communities, it is education malpractice if we fail to provide an understanding of where America is and has been on these troubling matters. Race is not rocket science; it is harder than rocket science. Race demands an intellectual investment equal to the task. It also demands relentlessness in research and teaching that will overwhelm the human tendency to let our differences trigger the worst in our natures.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Acknowledgments The editors would like to acknowledge the role that many people and agencies played in contributing to the success of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States and the report based on that conference, America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. The conference grew out of discussions between the National Research Council (NRC) and the President’s Initiative on Race. Judith Winston, the executive director of the Initiative, and her staff, including Lin Liu and John Goering, were engaged and helpful throughout the process. The additional support of Christopher Edley, Jr. (special adviser to the Initiative), Rebecca Blank (Council of Economic Advisers), Peter Rundlet (White House), and Katherine Wallman (Office of Management and Budget), was indispensable. Their ability to demonstrate the importance of the documentation of racial trends persuaded many agencies to support the conference. An advisory committee, made up of representatives of the sponsoring agencies and chaired by Rebecca Blank, met several times with NRC staff during the conference planning period. This committee provided the NRC with very helpful feedback and advice. The sponsors of the conference included the Bureau of Transportation Statistics of the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Figures 4–1   Yearly trends (1962 to 1997) in mean inflation-adjusted weekly wages for (A) males and (B) females,   60 4–2   Percentage wage deficits, relative to White males, for Black and Hispanic (A) males and (B) females,   62 4–3   Percentage wage deficits with comparable White males for (A) Black (1964–1994) and (B) Hispanic (1972–1996) males’ average wages for workers with 10 or fewer years of experience,   64 4–4   Percentage wage deficits with comparable White males for (A) Black (1964–1994) and (B) Hispanic (1972–1996) females’ average wages for workers with 10 or fewer years of experience,   65 4–5   Education deficits, as percentages, for Black and Hispanic (A) males and (B) males with 10 or fewer years of experience,   71 4–6   Education deficits, with White men, as percentages, for Black and Hispanic (A) females and (B) females with 10 or fewer years of experience,   72 4–7   Wage growth relative to 1962,   80 4–8A   Wage growth from 1970 to 1990 for U.S.-born male White and Hispanic Los Angeles County residents,   82 4–8B   Adjusted Hispanic wage growth from 1970 to 1990 for Los Angeles County residents,   82 4–9   Career wage growth of new male immigrant cohorts,   86 4–10   Career wage growth of new female immigrant cohorts,   87 4–11   White and non-White wealth distribution in 1984 (in 1996 dollars),   91 5–1   Relative wages of White and Black males: trends in Black-White wage ratio, 1940–1990,   99 5–2   Relative wage rates in 1990 of U.S.-born Asian and Hispanic men aged 25–64,   103 6–1   Ratio of Black women’s earnings compared to those of White women, Black men, and White men,   126 6–2   Earnings of Black, Asian, and Hispanic women as ratios of earnings of White women, 1974–1996,   126 6–3   Female/male earnings ratios by race,   126 6–4   Change, by race/ethnicity, in the percentage of women employed as clerical workers, 1960–1990,   131 6–5   Change in percentage of women employed as executives and managers, 1960–1990,   132 6–6   Unemployment rates for women, age 20 and older,   136

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II 7–1   Number of welfare recipients per capita, 1965 to 1995,   155 7–2   Percentage of benefit usage from any of the welfare programs, by race, 1985–1995,   157 7–3   Distribution of AFDC families by race of parent, 1983 to 1996,   162 7–4   Adjusted and unadjusted race-ethnic differences in AFDC recipiency rates, relative to the White population, 1995,   168 7–5   Adjusted and unadjusted race-ethnic differences in any welfare recipiency rate, relative to the White population, 1995,   168 10–1   Wealth gap in 1994 with no control of income: $0–$60,000,   232 10–2   Wealth gap in 1994 with no control of income: $0–$450,000,   232 10–3   Wealth gap in 1994 controlled for income: $0–$60,000,   233 10–4   Wealth gap in 1994 controlled for income: $0–$300,000,   234 12–1   Mean scaled WISC-R and WRAT-R scores for children aged 6 to 16, by income level and race/ethnicity, 1988–1991,   313 12–2   Iron deficiency among 1- to 2-year-old children by race and poverty status,   315 12–3   Elevated blood lead among children 1 to 5 years of age by family income, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, average annual 1988–1994,   317 12–4   Low-birth-weight live births among mothers 20 years of age and over by mother’s education, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1996,   319 12–5   Alcohol consumption after finding out about pregnancy: Expectant mothers in the United States, 1988,   321 12–6   Rates for adolescent male homicides, age 15 to 19, by race, 1970– 1994,   324 12–7   Homicide rates for male adolescents, age 15 to 19, resulting from the use of firearms, 1980–1994,   325 12–8A   Marijuana: Trends in marijuana, alcohol, and cigarette usage from 1977 to 1997 among Black, Hispanic, and White 12th graders,   329 12–8B   Alcohol: Trends in use among 12th graders during 30-day periods,   329 12–8C   Binge drinking: Trends in percentage of 12th graders reporting five or more drinks in a row during two-week periods,   330 12–8D   Cigarettes: Trends in percentage of 12th graders reporting use during 30-day periods,   330 12–9   Adolescent (age 15 to 19) suicides: Selected years, 1970–1994,   337

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II 13–1   Percent distribution of U.S. children younger than age 18 living with one or two parents in household, by race/ethnicity: 1940– 1994,   355 13–2A   Percentage of children under age 18 in families whose household income is below or near the poverty line, 1975,   356 13–2B   Percentage of children under age 18 in families whose household income is below or near the poverty line, 1993,   356 13–3   Percent of children 19–35 months who received the combined series immunizations (4:3:1:3), by race, Hispanic origin, and poverty status,   358 13–4   Percent of children 19–35 months who received the combined series immunizations (4:3:1), by race and poverty status,   360 13–5   Birth rate for teenagers 15–19 years by race and Hispanic origin: United States,   361 13–6   Injury mortality rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and type of injury, 1994–1995,   363 13–7   Integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children,   368

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Contents Volume I INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction Neil J.Smelser, William Julius Wilson, and Faith Mitchell 1 2 An Overview of Trends in Social and Economic Well-Being, by Race Rebecca M.Blank 21 DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS 3 An Overview of Racial and Ethnic Demographic Trends Gary D.Sandefur, Molly Martin, Jennifer Eggerling-Boeck, Susan E.Mannon, and Ann M.Meier 40 TRENDS AMONG ASIANS, HISPANICS, AND AMERICAN INDIANS 4 Hispanics in a Multicultural Society: A New American Dilemma? Albert M.Camarillo and Frank Bonilla 103 5 Trends Among American Indians in the United States Russell Thornton 135

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II 6 Political Trends and Electoral Issues of the Asian Pacific American Population Don T.Nakanishi 170 IMMIGRATION TRENDS 7 Contemporary Immigration and the Dynamics of Race and Ethnicity Min Zhou 200 RACIAL ATTITUDES, AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, AND INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS 8 The Changing Meaning of Race Michael A.Omi 243 9 Racial Attitudes and Relations at the Close of the Twentieth Century Lawrence D.Bobo 264 10 Racial Trends and Scapegoating: Bringing in a Comparative Focus Anthony W.Marx 302 11 Affirmative Action: Legislative History, Judicial Interpretations, Public Consensus Carol M.Swain 318 EDUCATION TRENDS 12 Test-Score Trends Along Racial Lines, 1971 to 1996: Popular Culture and Community Academic Standards Ronald F.Ferguson 348

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II NEIGHBORHOOD AND GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS 13 Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Conditions in U.S. Metropolitan Areas Douglas S.Massey 391 14 Geography and Opportunity Manuel Pastor, Jr. 435 APPENDIXES A Acronyms 469 B Agenda: Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States 472 C Biographical Sketches 477 Index 485

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Terminology Used in This Report As many of the authors point out, the term “race” as used to categorize ethnic origins of human beings is a social construct and has no biological basis. Nevertheless, we have come to identify certain terms and names with certain groups of people. The variety of those terms was reflected in the various authors’ usage choices; often, more than one term was used for the same group in the same paper. For the purposes of these volumes, we will use the terms as recommended by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in 1999: it coded race into five single-race groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Other. These terms are defined the terms as follows: American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as “Haitian” or “Negro” can be used in addition to “Black or African American.”

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Hispanic or Latino. With respect to ethnicity, is defined as: Hispanic or Latino. A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term “Spanish origin” can be used in addition to “Hispanic or Latino.” (Note: A Hispanic person can be Black or White.) Again, for the purposes of brevity and consistency, the terms used throughout these volumes are those recommended by OMB—American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic, and White. Where necessary to distinguish, non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White are used. SOURCE: Tabulation Working Group, Inter agency Committee for the Review of Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. 1999. Draft Provisional Guidance on the Implementation of the 1997 Standards for the Collection of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (3–5,65; February 17, 1999). Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget.

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II AMERICA BECOMING

OCR for page R1
America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II This page in the original is blank.