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Index A Acid pollution, 2, 32-33, 4546, 97, 106-107 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, 34, 35-36, 38, 69 Aerial remote sensing, 4142, 54, 121 Aesthetic issues, 65 Agenda 21, 19-20 Aggregation/disaggregation of data, 2, 21, 62-63, 67, 74, 151 Agricultural Nonpoint Source model, 47 Agriculture, x, 8, 12-13, 68, 98 animal production, 105-106, 107, 109, 110, 111-112 fertilizers, 12, 13, 49, 87, 88-89, 100, 105- 112 (passim), 156 National Resources Inventory, 9, 70 native species diversity, 81 net primary production, 11-12, 93 nitrogen, 106-107, 108, 109, 110, 111 nutrients-use efficiency, 7, 12-13, 89, 90- 91, 104-110 local indicators, 104, 110 nutrient balance, 7, 48-49, 105, 110-112 pests, 43, 28-29, 105 phosphorus, 106, 107, 108-110, 112 production and productivity, 13, 68, 104-106, 108, 110 171 regional indicators, 104, 106-107, 111 see also Department of Agriculture Aircraft, see Aerial remote sensing Air pollution, x acid pollution, 2, 32-33, 45-46, 97, 106- 107 Clean Air Act, 28 ozone-layer depletion, 30 see also Climate change Alaska, 72, 129 Algae, 11, 12, 39, 40, 45, 51, 84, 97, 98, 102- 103, 107 see Eutrophication; Trophic status indicators Alien species, see Exotic species Animal production, 105-106, 107, 109, 110, 111-112 Aquatic systems, 16, 21, 23, 4647 algae, 11, 12, 39, 40, 45, 51, 84, 97, 98, 102-103, 107 coastal zones, 67, 83-84, 87, 97-98 freshwater, general, 11, 21, 48, 65, 67, 79, 91, 131 marine, general, 21-22, 65-67, 83-87, 91 satellite remote sensing, 3940 species diversity, 16, 78, 130 trophic state indicators, 7, 11, 12, 33, 40, 43, 65, 66, 68, 90, 96-104, 106, 107

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172 wetlands, 14, 40, 55-56, 67, 68, 70, 71-72, 81, 117 see also Lakes; Rivers and streams; Water pollution Archiving, 5, 52, 59, 60-62 cost factors, 5, 52 disaggregated data, 67, 74 land cover, 35, 74 Army Corps of Engineers, 103 Australia, 128 B Belgium, 20 Biodiversity, 15-16, 20-21, 23, 39, 65, 114- 115 aquatic, 16, 78, 130 density, 15 independence, 15, 7, 9-10, 16 see also Species diversity Biogeochemical processes, 3, 8, 43, 44, 52, 84, 153 satellite remote sensing, 36, 37, 38 soil organic matter, 87-89 wetlands, 71 see also Carbon and carbon cycling; Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling; Nutrients Biogeographic models, 39, 43, 4445 Biological integrity, 24 Birds, 28-29, 33, 4243, 82, 126, 127 Brazilian Space Agency, 37-38 C California, 82 Canada, 19 Capital, see Ecological capital Carbon and carbon cycling, x, 1, 7, 11, 12, 66,90,92 dams, 69 forests, 120, 121 gross primary production, 91 net primary production, 11, 36, 37, 61, 66, 90-91, 92, 95 soils, 89 wetlands, 71 CASA, 95, 96 CD-ROM, 36 CENTURY model, 48, 93 INDEX Chlorophyll, 11, 90, 91, 93, 94, 96 lake trophic status, 98, 99, 100 see also Photosynthesis Christmas Bird Count, 42 ~_. . a. . all . ~~ass~cahon, see ~ axonom~es Clean Air Act, 28 Clean Water Act, 24, 28, 71, 83, 99, 130 Climate change, x, 1, 2, 14, 22, 24, 25, 26, 30, 48, 157 agricultural nutrients, 106 global mean temperature, 1, 22, 26 soil organic matter, 89 terrestrial productivity, 92, 94 Coastal zones eutrophication, 97-98 nutrient runoff, 67, 83-84, 87 Committee of Earth Observing Satellites, 75 Computer applications, general geographic information systems, 47, 72, 159 remotely sensed data, 59, 74, 101-102 Computer simulations, 30-31, 46-47, 119- 120, 153, 154, 155-158 Continuous Forest Inventory and Analysis, 42 Cost and cost-effectiveness, 3, 6, 13, 23, 26, 27,29,52,58 archiving, 5, 52 land cover indicators, 13 nutrient-use efficiency, 66 satellite remote sensing, 3940 Type I/II errors, 55 Costa Rica, 20 D Dams, 28, 69-70, 103, 129 Data requirements, 4-5, 8, 17, 25-26, 28, 29- 30, 49-50, 51, 52, 55-57, 59-60 aggregation/disaggregation, 2, 21, 62- 63, 67, 74, 151 archiving, 5, 35, 52, 59, 60-62, 67, 74 ecological capital, 75 forests, 120 international standards, 2, 6, 52, 58, 75 lake trophic status, 99-100 land cover, 69-75 nutrient runoff, 84-85 quality control, general, 59-60; see also Standards reliability, 34, 31, 53, 55, 72

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INDEX robustness, 5-6, 52, 57, 74-76 soil organic matter, 89-90 stream trophic status, 103 temporal and spatial scales, 53-54 terrestrial productivity, 94-96 see also Archiving; Information sharing; Sampling; Statistical analyses; Taxonomies DDT, 28-29 Department of Agriculture, 43 Forest Service, 4142, 43, 95, 117-119 National Resources Inventory, 9, 70, 95 Department of Energy, 36 Department of the Interior, see Fish and Wildlife Service; Geological Survey Disaggregation of data, see Aggregation/ disaggregation of data Dissolved oxygen, 7, 12, 46, 47, 90, 102-104 Diversity, see Biodiversity; Species diversity E Earth Observing System, 41 Economic indicators, 19, 22, 49, 50 see also Cost and cost-effectiveness Ecological capital, 7, 8, 9-11, 22, 65, 66, 75- 83 data requirements, 75 native species diversity, 7, 9-10,16, 66, 75, 80-83 nutrient runoff, 7, 9,10-11, 66, 83-87 soil, 65, 66, 87-90 total species diversity, 7,10, 66, 75-80 see also Biodiversity; Ecosystem services; Species diversity Ecosystem goods and services, 7,14, 22-23, 32,65,66,67 lakes, 96-97 land use information, 64-65 see also Production and productivity Ecosystem health, 23-24 Forest Health Monitoring Program, 118- 119 Ecosystems, general, x, 2-3, 8, 4348 biogeographic models, 44-45 international compatibility of indicators, 58 local species diversity, 123 see also specific ecosystem types 173 Education and training, see Skill requirements Endangered species, 43, 75, 83, 117 Endangered Species Act, 75,117 Enhanced Thematic Mapper, 40-41 Environmental Defense Fund, 83 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), ix, x,21,28,54 Environmental Protection Agency lake monitoring, 96, 99 species diversity, 130 stream trophic status, 103 study at hand, methodology, ix, x-xi, 21, 22 see also Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Error of measurement, 55 total species diversity, 79-80 Eros Data Center, 35 Ethical issues, 65 Europe, 85 Germany, 108,109, 110 Netherlands, 19, 107 Eutrophication, 7,11,12,18, 65, 66, 84, 97- 98, 100, 102-103, 107 Exotic species, 7,16, 81,126,127,128-129 Extinction, 23, 26 endangered species, 43, 75, 83,117 F Federal government, ix see also specific departments and agencies Fertilizers, 12, 13, 49, 87, 88-89, 100, 105-112 (passim), 156 Field tests, 30 Fish and fisheries, 16, 29, 45 exotics, 129 lakes, 97 Fish and Wildlife Service, 72, 83 Flowpath models, 47-48 Fluorometry, 101 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Freshwater ecosystems, 11, 21, 48, 65, 67, 79, 91, 131 Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), 16, 4445, 53, 82, 130 see also Lakes; Rivers and streams Forest Health Monitoring Program, 118-119

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174 Forest Inventory and Analysis program, 93, 118-119 Forests and forestry, 14, 20, 71 aerial photography, 41-42 crown condition, 121-122 data requirements, 120 foliage-height profiles, 121 ground-based measurements, 42, 117- 118, 119-120 light penetration, 121 models, 119-120 native species diversity, 81 pests, Web site, 43 physical damage, 122 productivity indices, 11-12, 93, 95, 117, 118-119, 120 regional indicators, 14, 117-122 satellite remote sensing, 37-38, 41,121 total species diversity, 14, 77 tropical deforestation, 72, 93 Forest Service, 4142, 43, 95, 117-119 Fourth of July Butterfly Count, 43 G Geographic indicators, 2, 4, 8,16, 22-23, 25, 31,47,51,52,53-54,59 agricultural nutrients, 108, 109 biogeographic models, 39, 43, 4445 birds, ground-based measurements, 42- 43 data requirements, general, 53-54 forests, 118 land cover, 4748, 72 nutrient runoff, 85 sampling procedures, 151 satellite remote sensing, 34, 39 species diversity, 123 stream trophic status, 103 terrestrial productivity, 94 see also International perspectives; Land cover; Land use; Local indicators; Regional indicators; State-level indicators Geographic information systems, 47, 72, 159 Geological Survey (USGS), 35, 36, 38, 42-43, 69, 70-71, 84, 103 Germany, 108,109, 110 Global mean temperature, 1, 22, 26 see also Climate change INDEX Global measures, other satellite remote sensing, 36 soil organic matter, carbon budget, 89 see also International perspectives Global Terrestrial Observing System, 75 Government role, see Federal government; State government Great Lakes, 101 Greenhouse gases, see Climate change Gross primary production, 91 Ground-based measurements, 4243 birds, 4243 forests, 42,117-118, 119-120 lake trophic status, 99-102 land cover, 73 soil organic matter, 89-90 stream trophic status, 102 Gulf of Mexico, 84 H Historical perspectives, 19-20, 25, 55 agricultural nutrients, 107 biological integrity, 24 ground-based measures, 4243 Landsat, 35-36 reliability, 3 terrestrial productivity models, vegetation mapping by satellites, 37-38 Hydrological processes, 8 Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), 16, 4445, 53, 82,130 Information sharing, 2, 22 international standards, 2, 6, 52, 58, 75 see also Data requirements Insects, 43, 128 see also Pests and pesticides International Geosphere and Biosphere Program, 37, 71, 73, 75 International perspectives, 2, 19-20 air pollution, x land cover, 75 standards, compatibility, 2, 6, 52, 58, 75 see also Europe; specific countries Internet sources birds, species diversity, 42-43 insects, 43

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INDEX Long Term Ecological Research Sites, 42 satellite images, 36 Invertebrate Community Index, 153 J JABOWA-FORET models, 156 K Keystone species, 17, 114, 163-164 L Laboratory experiments, 30 Lakes, 7, 11, 12, 32, 46-47 acidification, 32-33, 4546 dams, 28, 69-70, 103, 129 data requirements, 99-100 EPA monitoring, 96, 99 fisheries, 97 Great Lakes, 101 ground-based measurements, 101-102 phosphorus concentrations, 98, 99, 100 recreation, 97, 98, 100 regional indicators, 40, 97-98, 101, 102 sampling, 100-101 satellite remote sensing, 40, 101-102 sediment analyses, 153-154 trophic status, 4546, 96-102 Land cover, 7, 8-9, 47-48, 64-65, 66, 67-75 biodiversity, 10, 75-76 cost/time factors, 13 data requirements, 69-75 defined, 67 local indicators, 32, 67 Markov matrices, 69, 159-164 models, 4748, 69, 76-78, 159-164 native species, 83 regional indicators, 32, 67, 72, 94 sampling, 9, 69, 70, 73, 77, 78 satellite remote sensing, 9, 3641, 69, 70- 71, 72, 73-75 seasonal variation, 37, 38-39 species diversity, 75-76 taxonomies, 67, 71, 73, 76, 83, 159-160 time-series analysis, 73, 159-160 total species diversity, 76-77 175 see also Agriculture; Forests and forestry; Rivers and streams; Vegetation; Wetlands Landsat Thematic Mapper, 34-35, 38, 4041, 69, 70-71, 74-75, 92 Landscape models, 4748, 69, 159-164 Land use, 7, 8, 12-13, 30, 64-65, 66, 67-75 native species diversity, 10, 80-83 total species diversity, 66, 76, 75-80 see also Agriculture; Soil; Vegetation Legislation Clean Air Act, 28 Clean Water Act, 24, 28, 71, 83, 99, 130 Endangered Species Act, 75, 117 Local indicators, 2, 14, 17, 21-22, 52, 53, 63, 116 agricultural nutrients, 104, 110 disaggregation of national data, 67 land cover, 32, 67 species diversity, 123-126, 128-129 terrestrial productivity, 94 tolerant species, 114-115, 126 Long Term Ecological Research Sites, 42, 95 M Marine ecosystems, 21-22, 65-67, 83-87, 91 coastal zones, 67, 83-84, 87, 97-98 Markov matrices, 69, 161-164 Massachusetts, 32 Migratory Bird Population Station, 42 MINLAKE, 47 Minnesota, 32, 99, 118-119, 157 Mississippi River, 84, 85-86, 87 Models and modeling, general, 3, 5, 6-7, 8, 25, 29, 30, 52-53 archiving, 61 biogeographic, 39, 43, 4445 CENTURY, 48, 93 committee model for choosing indicators, 48-50, 62-63, 64 computer simulations, 30-31, 4647, 119- 120, 153, 154, 155-158 ecosystem functioning, 4348 flowpath, 47-48 forests, 119-120 JABOWA-FORET models, 156 land cover, 4748, 69, 76-78, 159-164 local species diversity, 124-125, 128-129

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176 Markov matrices, 69, 161-164 native species diversity, 81-82 net primary production (NPP), 36, 92, 93, 95, 96, 102 nutrient fluxes, 85 prospective indicators and monitoring, general, 28, 29, 33 reactor models, 45-46 retrospective indicators and monitoring, 34, 28, 29, 33, 53, 159 satellite remote sensing, 36-37 SiB, 37 stream trophic status, 102 terrestrial productivity, 92-93, 95-96 total species diversity, 76-78 see also Predictive indicators and models Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 40, 41 Multimetric indicators, 16, 61-62, 82, 130 Multiple stressors, 20, 29 Multi-Spectral Scanner, 35 N National accounts, 20 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 36, 39, 4041, 94-95 National American Breeding Bird Survey, 42 National Audubon Society, 42 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 36, 94- 95 National Resources Inventory, 9, 70, 95 National Science Foundation, 42 National Wetland Inventory, 72 Net ecosystem production (NEP), 91-92, 93- 96 Netherlands, 19, 107 Net primary production (NPP), 11, 36, 37, 48, 61, 66, 90 agriculture, 11-12, 93 carbon cycling, 11, 36, 37, 61, 66, 90-91, 92, 95 predictive models, 36, 92, 93, 95, 96, 102 stream trophic status, 102 terrestrial ecosystems, 91-96 INDEX Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling, 13, 36, 42, 46, 85-87 agricultural nutrients, 106-107, 108, 109, 110, 111 forests, 120 wetlands, 71 Nonnative species, see Exotic species Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 36, 38, 92, 94, 96 North American Butterfly Association, 43 NPP, see Net primary production Nutrients, 9, 20, 4647, 95 agriculture, 7, 12-13, 48-49, 68, 87, 89, 90-91, 100, 104-112, 156 climate change, 106 coastal zones, 67, 83-84, 87 dams, 69 data requirements, 84-85 fertilizers, 12, 13, 49, 87, 88-89, 100, 105- 112 (passim), 156 lake trophic status, 4546, 96-102 runoff, 7, 9, 10-11, 66, 83-87 soil organic matter, 7, 10-11, 20, 33, 48, 66, 67, 87-90 stream oxygen, 7, 12, 46, 47, 90, 102-104 see also Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling; Phosphorus o Ohio, 130 Ozone-layer depletion, 30 p Paleobiology and paleoecology, 30, 32-33, 54-55, 56, 153-155 Patuxent Environmental Science Center, 42 Pests and pesticides, 28-29, 68, 105 see also Exotic species Phosphorus, 13 as agricultural nutrient, 106, 107, 108- 110, 112 forests, 120 lake trophic status, 98, 99, 100 terrestrial productivity, 85-87, 88, 90 Photosynthesis, 11. 12, 24, 36, 37, 39, 44, 48, 49, 90-94 (passim), 96, 102-103 Pilot studies, 2, 4

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INDEX Pollution, x, 44, 80, 104 see also Air pollution; Nutrients; Water pollution Population growth, human, 80 see also Urban areas Predictive indicators and models aggregated, 19 climate and fisheries, 47 economic, 19, 22, 49, 50 forests, 121-122 general, 27-30 (passim), 45 land coversurface, 37, 47, 65 net primary production, 36, 92, 93, 95, 96,102 paleobiology, 30 population dynamics, 96, 113 general, 151 keystone species, 114 landscape trajectories, 159 quasi-sustainable diversity, 124 stream ecosystems, 43-44 see also Prospective indicators and monitoring Production and productivity, 7, 11-12, 14, 20,61,65,66,80,90,117 aquatic, lake trophic status, 96-102 aquatic, stream oxygen, 102-104 agriculture, 13, 68, 104-106, 108, 110 defined, 90 economic indicators, 19, 49, 50 forests, 11-12, 93, 95, 117, 118-119, 120 gross primary production, 91 lakes, not trophic status, 97 net ecosystem production (NEP), 91-92, 93-96 phosphorus, 85-87, 88, 90 terrestrial, 90-96 see also Ecosystem services; Eutrophication; Net primary production Prospective indicators and monitoring, 28, 29, 33 R Reactor models, 4546 Recreational resources aesthetic issues, 65 forests, 117 lakes, 97, 98, 100 Reference states, 23-25, 33, 34, 77, 78, 82, 88 177 Regional HydroEcological Simulation System, 48 Regional indicators, 2, 14, 16, 21-22, 52, 53, 63,116,130 agricultural nutrients, 104, 106-107, 111 biogeographic models, 44-45 disaggregation of national data, 67 fisheries, 16 forests, 14, 117-122 net ecosystem production, 93 lake trophic status, 40, 97-98, 101, 102 land cover, 32, 67, 72, 94 nutrient runoff, 85-87 paleoecological data, 32-33 river continuum model, 44 soil organic matter, 89 tolerant species, 114-115, 126 vegetation, 32, 94 see also State-level indicators Reliability of data, 34, 31, 53, 55, 72 see also Robustness Remote sensing, 3442, 58-59, 159 aerial, 4142, 54, 121 archives, 61 lakes, 101 see also Satellites Research recommendations, 17, 18, 19-20, 113-115, 158 Retrospective indicators and monitoring, 3- 4, 28, 29, 33, 53, 159 Riparian systems, 68, 102, 104 River Continuum Concept, 102 Rivers and streams, 4344, 46-47, 68, 69 dams, 28, 69-70, 103, 129 eutrophication, 97-98 Mississippi River, 84, 85-86, 87 oxygen levels/trophic state, 7, 12, 46, 47, 90, 102-104 regional, river continuum model, 44 riparian systems, 68, 102, 104 sedimentation, 29 temperature, 102-103, 104 water quality standards, 130 watersheds, 22, 85-86, 98 see also Nutrient runoff Robustness of data, 5-6, 52, 57, 74-76 S Safe Harbor program, 83 Salinity, 23

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178 Sampling, 5, 31, 54, 60, 151-158 lake trophic status, 100-101 land cover, 9, 69, 70, 73, 77, 78 local species diversity, 123-124 nutrient runoff, 85 soil organic matter, 89-90 temporal factors, 151, 152-153; see also Time-series analysis total species diversity, 77, 78 see also Archiving Santiago Declaration, 20 Satellite technology, 3441, 54, 58-59 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, 34, 35-36, 38, 69 aquatic systems, general, 3940 biogeochemical processes, 36, 37, 38 cost factors, 39-40 forests, 37-38, 41, 121 lakes, 40, 101-102 land cover, general, 9, 3641, 69, 70-71, 72, 73-75 Landsat Thematic Mapper, 34-35, 38, 4041, 69, 70-71 models, general, 36-37 NASA, 36, 39, 4041, 94-95 National Resources Inventory and, 70 soil, 37 terrestrial productivity, 92, 94-95, 96 vegetation, 36, 37-41, 67, 96 Scientific Committee on Problems of Environment (SCOPE), 20 Seasonal variations, 45 lake trophic status, 98-99 species, 24 terrestrial productivity, 94 vegetation and landscape, 37, 38-39 Secchi-disk transparency values, 98-100 Skill requirements, 4-5, 56-57, 73-74 SiB model, 37 Simulation models, see Computer simulations Soil, 7, 9, 10-11, 12-13, 20, 23, 29, 48-49, 156- 158 data requirements, 89-90 ecological capital, 65, 66, 87-90 forests, 120 ground-based measurements, 89-90 organic matter, 7, 10-11, 20, 33, 48, 66, 67, 87-90 sampling, 89-90 satellite-based models, 37 INDEX temperature indicators, 89 see also Agriculture; Nutrients Space Shuttle, 39, 41, 121 Spatial indicators, see Geographic indicators; Land cover; Land use Species diversity, 7, 9-10, 13, 15, 16, 24, 49, 65, 114-115, 123-130 agricultural effects on, 81 aquatic, 16, 78, 130 biogeographic models, 44-45 deficiencies, 126-129 density, 125 ecological capital, 7, 9-10, 16, 66, 75, 75- 83 endangered species, 43, 75, 83, 117 extinction, 23, 36 exotic species, 7, 16, 81, 126, 127, 128- 129 forests, 14, 77 ground-based measurements, 42-43 independence, 124-125 keystone species, 17, 114, 163-164 local indicators, 123-126, 128-129 models, 76-78 native, 7, 9-10, 16, 66, 75, 80-83 regional, 14, 124 sampling, 77, 78, 123-124 standards of measurement, 78, 79-80, 81,82 taxonomies, 83 total, 7, 10, 16, 66, 75-80 see also Endangered species; Extinction Spectral techniques, 37, 39, 40, 41, 101, 113- 114, 154-158 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, 34, 35-36, 38, 69 algae, 38-40 Multi-Spectral Scanner, 35 Standards, 17, 62 archiving, 61 Clean Air Act, 28 Clean Water Act, 24, 28, 71, 83, 99, 130 international, 2, 6, 52, 58, 75 lake trophic status, 102 native species diversity, 81, 82 soil organic matter, 88 total species diversity, 78, 79-80 State government, ix, 22 State-level indicators, 2, 23, 25, 32, 82 agricultural nutrients, 110

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INDEX agriculture and native species diversity, 81 California, 82 exotics, 129 Massachusetts, 32 Minnesota, 32, 99, 118-119, 157 National Resources Inventory, 9, 70 species diversity, 129, 130 Washington State, 129 wetlands, 72 see also specific states Statistical analyses, 4, 10, 54-55, 113-114 aggregation/disaggregation of data, 2, 21, 62-63, 67, 74, 151 documentation of, 60 error of measurement, 55, 79-80 land cover, 73 Markov matrices, 69, 161-164 see also Sampling; Time-series analysis Streams, see Rivers and streams Synthetic aperture radar, 39 T Taxonomies, 51, 54 land cover, 67, 71, 73, 76, 83 landscape change models, 159-160 native species, 83 Technological changes, 8, 17, 24-25, 26 agricultural nutrients, 105 archiving of data and, 61 lake trophic status, 101-102 land cover data, 73-75 robustness of indicators, 6, 57 stream trophic status, 104 see Internet; Remote sensing Temperature indicators, 7, 21-22, 25, 31, 46, 48 daily variation, 93-94 forests, 118 interannual variation, 94 research recommendations, 113-114 soil organic matter, 89 stream trophic status, 102-103, 104 see also Climate change; Global mean temperature; Seasonal variations Temporal indicators, 2, 4, 8, 28, 34, 51, 52, 53-56, 59, 116 agricultural nutrients, 109 birds, ground-based measurements, 42- 43 179 committee recommendations, 13 cost-effectiveness, 58 data requirements, 53-54 land cover, 72-73 local species diversity, 123 nutrient runoff, 87 paleobiology and paleoecology, 30, 32- 33, 54-55, 56, 153-155 sampling procedures, 151, 152-153 soil organic matter, 89 stream trophic status, 103 terrestrial net primary productivity, 93- 94 Time-series analysis, 6, 59, 61, 113, 153, 154, 155-158 land cover, 73 landscape change models, 159-160 soil organic matter, 89 Training, see Skill requirements Tree-ring records, 154 Trophic state indicators, 7, 11, 12, 33, 40, 43, 65, 66, 68, 90, 96-104, 106, 107 lakes, 45-46, 96-102 streams, 7, 12, 46, 47, 90, 102-104 see also Eutrophication Tropical rain forests deforestation, 72, 93 net primary production, 11-12 U United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 19-20 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 19, 20 United Nations Statistical Division, 20 Universal Soil Loss Equation, 47 Urban areas, 81, 82, 98, 127, 128, 129 V Vegetation, 32 diversity, deficiencies in, 126 normalized difference vegetation index, 36,38,92,94,96 photosynthesis, 11, 12, 24, 36, 37, 39, 44, 48, 49, 90-94 (passim), 96, 102-103 productivity, 91-96 productivity models, 92-93

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80 regional indicators, 32, 94 satellite sensing, 36, 37-41, 67, 96 seasonal variations, 37, 38-39 total species diversity, 76-77 see also Agriculture; Forests and forestry; Land cover; Soil Vegetation Canopy Lidar, 41, 96 VEMAP model comparison, 93 W Washington State, 129 Water pollution, 2, 44, 4547, 83-87 acid pollution, 2, 32-33, 45-46, 97, 106- 107 agricultural nutrients, 106 Clean Water Act, 24, 28, 71, 83, 99, 130 dams, 69 INDEX nutrient runoff, 7, 9,10-11, 66, 83-87 salinity, 23 stream oxygen, 7, 12, 46, 47, 90, 102-104 see also Aquatic systems; Eutrophication; Trophic state indicators Watersheds, 22, 85-86, 98 Wavelet analysis, 113-114,155 Wetlands, 14, 40, 55-56, 67, 68, 70, 71-72, 81, 117 riparian systems, 68,102,104 Wetlands Reserve Program, 72 Wildlife, 7, 28-29 birds, 28-29, 33, 4243, 82, 126, 127 fish and fisheries, 16, 29, 45, 97,129 keystone species, 17,114,163-164 see also Biodiversity; Exotic species; Species diversity World Bank, 20 World Wide Web, see Internet