Appendix
Institute of Medicine/National Research Council Reports Relevant to Adolescence

Adolescent Behavior and Health (1978) summarizes the deliberations of a conference convened to examine the formation of health-relevant behavior during early adolescence.

Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Prevention Programs (1999) summarizes the presentations and discussions of a workshop examining the current knowledge base regarding adolescent decision making, and the implications of this research with respect to their involvement in risk behaviors and the design of prevention interventions.

Adolescent Development and the Biology of Puberty: Summary of a Workshop on New Research (1999) summarizes presentations and discussions of a workshop convened to examine new research on adolescent development and the biology of puberty.

AIDS and Behavior: An Integrated Approach (1994) describes what investigators in the biobehavioral, psychological, and social sciences have discovered about the behavioral and mental health aspects of HIV infection and AIDS, and offers recommendations for research directions and priorities.

Alcoholism, Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems (1980) reviews the research field and assesses the scientific opportunities in particular areas: medical and psychological etiologies and consequences of alcohol abuse and alco-



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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence Appendix Institute of Medicine/National Research Council Reports Relevant to Adolescence Adolescent Behavior and Health (1978) summarizes the deliberations of a conference convened to examine the formation of health-relevant behavior during early adolescence. Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Prevention Programs (1999) summarizes the presentations and discussions of a workshop examining the current knowledge base regarding adolescent decision making, and the implications of this research with respect to their involvement in risk behaviors and the design of prevention interventions. Adolescent Development and the Biology of Puberty: Summary of a Workshop on New Research (1999) summarizes presentations and discussions of a workshop convened to examine new research on adolescent development and the biology of puberty. AIDS and Behavior: An Integrated Approach (1994) describes what investigators in the biobehavioral, psychological, and social sciences have discovered about the behavioral and mental health aspects of HIV infection and AIDS, and offers recommendations for research directions and priorities. Alcoholism, Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems (1980) reviews the research field and assesses the scientific opportunities in particular areas: medical and psychological etiologies and consequences of alcohol abuse and alco-

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence holism, the pathogenicity of alcohol, the relation of alcohol use and abuse to other major medical disorders, the development of diagnostic procedures and techniques, and the applicability of research methodologies to the development and assessment of treatment and prevention techniques. America's Fathers and Public Policy (1994) summarizes the comments of participants at a workshop that addressed issues related to fathers under stress, including child support, teenage fathers, fathers of disabled children, and inner-city poor fathers, and presents selected research findings on these topics. America's Children: Health Insurance and Access to Care (1998) provides an overview of key issues in the organization, delivery, and financing of health care for children, including evaluating empirical evidence about the relationship between health insurance and access to care and identifying key trends in insurance coverage and the delivery of care for uninsured children. Assessing the Social and Behavioral Science Base for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention (1995), a paper originally presented at an IOM workshop on the social and behavioral science base for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, describes a practical integrative theory on how to coordinate efforts to halt the spread of HIV/AIDS and discover knowledge gaps. Bereavement: Reactions, Consequences, and Care (1984) examines the factors that affect the bereavement process and its impact on general and mental health. It covers emotional reactions and health consequences of bereavement, biological and social science perspectives on its effects, and various approaches to assisting bereaved people. The book includes a chapter on bereavement in children and adolescents. The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families (1995) offers a timely exploration of family planning issues, including information on pregnancy rates and trends, the effectiveness of pregnancy prevention programs, the health and social consequences of unintended pregnancies, and the factors that shape decisions about sex, contraception, and pregnancy. Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems (1990) reviews re-

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence search and experience on alternative approaches and mechanisms for alcoholism and alcohol abuse treatment and rehabilitative services; assesses evidence on comparative costs, quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of such services; reviews the state of financing alternatives available to the public; and makes recommendations for policies and programs of research, planning, administration, and reimbursement for treatment. Development During Middle Childhood: The Years from Six to Twelve (1984) identifies significant aspects of social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development during the early elementary years, reviews the status of relevant basic research, highlights theoretical and methadological issues, and makes recommendations for future research. Dispelling the Myths About Addiction: Strategies to Increase Understanding and Strengthen Research (1997) identifies and addresses barriers to public understanding of addiction, including those that present obstacles for attracting and sustaining talented investigators and other health professionals who wish to pursue careers in addiction research. Education and Learning to Think (1987) addresses the question of what schools in America can do to more effectively teach what have come to be called ''high-order skills." It draws conclusions about what are high-order skills, whether high-order thinking can be directly taught, and how instruction in higher-order thinking should be organized. Emergency Medical Services for Children (1993) explores why emergency care for children, from infants through adolescents, must differ from that for adults and describes what seriously ill or injured children generally experience in today's systems. It makes a range of recommendations, from ensuring access through the 911 system to enhancing data resources and expanding research efforts. From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families (1998) focuses on the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population: immigrant children and youth. It discusses the many factors—family size, fluency in English, parent employment, acculturation, delivery of health and social services, and public policies—that shape the outlook for the lives of these children, and makes recommendations for

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence improved research and data collection designed to advance knowledge and, as a result, the visibility of these children in current policy debates. Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youth (1994) addresses the troubling issues surrounding youth and tobacco use, including explaining nicotine's effects and the process of addiction, documenting the search for an effective approach to preventing smoking, summarizing the results of recent initiatives to limit or control access and use of tobacco, and examining the controversial area of tobacco advertising. Health and Behavior: Frontiers of Research in Biobehavioral Sciences (1982) briefly describes many promising directions in basic, applied, and clinical sciences that contribute to an understanding of human behavior. Coverage is broad but not exhaustive and includes a discussion of prevention efforts for adolescents related to smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual activity, diet and exercise, schooling, and delinquency. The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1997) examines the epidemiological dimensions of STDs in the United States and the factors that contribute to the epidemic; assesses the effectiveness of current public health strategies and programs to prevent and control STDs; and provides direction for future public health programs, policy, and research in STD prevention and control. Homelessness, Health, and Human Needs (1988) is a study of the delivery of inpatient and outpatient health services to homeless people. Taking a broad view of health care and of needs for health-care-related services, including nutrition, mental health, alcohol and drug abuse problems, and dental care, it treats adolescents as a particularly vulnerable subgroup of the homeless population. Improving Health in the Community: A Role for Performance Monitoring (1997) summarizes the work of a two-year study intended to examine the use of performance monitoring and develop sets of indicators that communities could use to promote the achievement of public health goals. Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children (1997) is a comprehensive review and synthesis of research on the education of limited-English-proficient and bilingual students. The book reviews a broad range of

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence studies—from basic ones on language, literacy, and learning to others in educational settings. It proposes a research agenda that responds to issues of policy and practice while maintaining scientific integrity. In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (1996) provides a solid documentary base that can be used to develop an agenda to guide research and health policy formulation on female health—both for Sub-Saharan Africa and for other regions of the developing world. It covers such topics as demographics, nutritional status, obstetric morbidity and mortality, mental health problems, and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. In Her Own Right: The Institute of Medicine's Guide to Women's Health Issues (1997) synthesizes the IOM's views on fast-moving developments in medicine in an overview of women's health across the life span, highlighting what is known about the health differences between men and woman and the mysteries that remain to be solved. Inner-City Poverty in the United States (1990) documents the continuing growth of concentrated poverty in central cities and examines what is known about its causes and effects. Integrating Federal Statistics on Children: Report of a Workshop (1995) summarizes a meeting held to examine the adequacy of federal statistics on children and families against a framework of key developmental transition points in the lives of children and adolescents. Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings (1993) explores the settings in which American youths are expected to mature into responsible adulthood, including families, schools, and communities, and illuminates the challenging policy issues that decision makers face in this realm. Neither Angels Nor Thieves: Studies in Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (1982) examines what happened to youth who committed status offenses (e.g., truants, runaways, incorrigibles) in the aftermath of the 1974 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. The legislation mandated the removal of these youth from secure confinement, prohibited their subsequent incarceration, and called for the development of alternative types of community-based programs and services. The report includes

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence analyses of state and federal program based on field work in 7 states and 14 local areas. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1997) sheds light on one of the most controversial issues of the decade, identifying the economic gains and losses from immigration for the country, states, and localities, and providing a foundation for public discussion and policy making. New Findings on Poverty and Child Health and Nutrition (1998) summarizes a workshop at which researchers presented recent findings in the areas of poverty, child health, and nutrition, highlighting key findings relevant to the contemporary debate about welfare and health care policy for the poor, and examining priorities for future research that will yield insights into the effects of welfare reform. The report also features a discussion of state and local officials' data and research needs, and examples of new child health interventions and projects monitoring the effects of welfare reform. New Findings on Welfare and Children's Development: Summary of a Research Briefing (1994) presents research on how children and youth are affected by growing up in families that receive welfare benefits. Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) provides a national research agenda designed to yield the greatest benefit from limited resources. The book covers the epidemiology and etiology of drug abuse and discusses several of its most troubling health and social consequences, including HIV, violence, and harm to children, as well as the efficacy of preventive interventions and treatments. Paying Attention to Children in a Changing Health Care System (1996) summarizes five workshops convened between 1991 and 1994 to explore various aspects of maternal and child health care in an era of health system change. Preventing Drug Abuse: What Do We Know? (1993) provides a comprehensive overview of what is known about drug abuse prevention and its effectiveness, including results of a range of antidrug efforts; a profile of the drug problem, including a look at drug use by different population groups; an exploration of three schools of prevention theory; a view of the role and

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence effectiveness of mass media in preventing drug use; and an examination of promising prevention techniques. Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States (1999) assesses what is known about work done in the United States by children and adolescents and the effects of that work on their physical and emotional health and social functioning. It presents a wide range of data and analysis on the scope of youth employment, factors that put children and adolescents at risk in the workplace, and the positive and negative effects of employment, including data on educational attainment and lifestyle choices. Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research (1994) reviews advances in understanding of how to reduce risk factors for mental disorders in the context of current research, and provides a targeted definition of prevention and a conceptual framework that emphasizes risk reduction. The report includes a focused research agenda with recommendations on how to develop effective intervention programs, create a cadre of prevention researchers, and improve coordination among government agencies and private foundations. Reproductive Health in Developing Countries: Expanding Dimensions, Building Solutions (1997) assesses the magnitude and severity of reproductive health problems in developing countries, examines the likely costs and effectiveness of interventions to improve reproductive health, and recommends priorities for programs, research, and data collection. Research on Children and Adolescents with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders (1989) examines the status of research on emotional, behavioral, and developmental mental disorders in children and adolescents. It documents the progress being made in understanding, preventing, and treating such disorders, highlights some of the many promising opportunities for future research, and delineates critical resource requirements for advancing the field. Research on Mental Illness and Addictive Disorders: Progress and Prospects (1984) summarizes progress in understanding, preventing, and treating mental and addictive disorders (including depression and mania, schizophrenia, anxiety and phobias, drug abuse, alcoholism, personality disor-

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence ders, severe mental disorders of childhood and old age, and the problems of chronic mental illness), and highlights promising directions for further advances. Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbearing (1987) examines data on trends in teenage sexuality and fertility behavior, reviews and synthesizes research on the antecedents and consequences of early pregnancy and childbearing, and reviews alternative preventive and ameliorative policies and programs. It includes discussion of priorities for data collection and research. Schools and Health: Our Nation's Investment (1997), the report of an IOM committee charged with studying K-12 comprehensive school health programs, provides a framework for determining desirable and feasible health outcomes of such programs, examines the relationship between health and education outcomes, considers factors necessary to optimize these outcomes, appraises data on effectiveness, and recommends ways to implement effective school-based health programs. Sleeping Pills, Insomnia, and Medical Practice (1979) reviews both clinical issues and public health problems associated with the prescribing of sleeping pills (hypnotics) containing secobarbital, pentobarbital, and amobarbital. The report includes a discussion of suicide and accidental overdose, traffic safety, and nonmedical use related to these drugs. Social Dynamics of Adolescent Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa (1993) is one of a series of reports on the population dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa. This report describes the changing social context within which adolescents are having children in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the effects of these changing circumstances on the benefits and risks of early childbearing. Social Marketing to Adolescent and Minority Populations: Workshop Summary (1995) summarizes ideas about the use and effectiveness of social marketing in communicating health promotion and disease prevention information to adolescent and minority populations, summarizes the limited evaluative information available on social marketing to these populations, and suggests questions for future research. Systems of Accountability: Implementing Children's Health Insurance Programs

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence (1998) addresses practical concerns about the implementation and evaluation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program, and presents recommendations about accountability for measuring the program's impact. Taking Action to Reduce Tobacco Use (1998) addresses tobacco control in terms of price increases, federal regulation, state and local tobacco control programs, performance monitoring, cessation programs, research, and international health impacts. Transitions in Work and Learning: Implications for Assessment (1997) provides a conceptual framework and empirical base necessary for inquiry into the pressing issues surrounding transitions into and between learning and work environments. Treating Drug Problems: A Study of the Evolution, Effectiveness, and Financing of Public and Private Drug Treatment Systems (1990) discusses the history of ideas governing drug policy, the nature and extent of the need for treatment, the goals and effectiveness of treatment, the need for research on treatment methods and services, the costs and organization of the two-tiered national treatment system, the scope and organizing principles of public and private coverage, and provides recommendations tailored to each kind of coverage. 2020 Vision: Health in the 21st Century (1996), published on the 25th anniversary of the Institute of Medicine, explores the challenges of the coming 25 years with an eye to the forces that will affect Americans' lives, health, and health care system. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect (1993) includes a comprehensive overview of definitions and the scope of child maltreatment, an examination of research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect, and a discussion of the human and other resources needed to move research in this area forward. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (1996) addresses a central dilemma of coping with risk in a democracy: detailed scientific and technical information is essential for making decisions, but the people who make and live with those decisions are not scientists. It

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence argues that making risks understandable to the public involves much more than just translating scientific information. Understanding Violence against Women (1996) is a comprehensive overview of current knowledge in the area of violence against women and identifies four areas with the greatest potential for increasing understanding of domestic violence and rape: (1) what interventions are designed to do; (2) factors that put people at risk of violence and that precipitate violence; (3) the scope of domestic violence and sexual assault in America and its consequences to individuals, families, and society; and (4) how to structure the study of violence to yield more useful knowledge. Urban Change and Poverty (1988) describes the uncertainties facing cities and their economies and populations, identifies the urban policy issues facing state, local, and federal policy makers, and assesses possible policy responses at each level of the intergovernmental system. It includes background papers on a set of specific issues. Violence and the American Family (1994) summarizes discussions from a workshop held to identify key issues to be addressed in responding to the problem of family violence, determine the state of research in the field, and consider the nexus between research and policy initiatives. Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs (1998) provides a comprehensive review of the successes and failures of family violence interventions; offers recommendations to guide services, programs, policy, and research; and outlines new strategies for researcher-practitioner collaboration that can improve the design and evaluation of prevention and treatment services; the report also features an analysis of 114 evaluation studies on the outcomes of different kinds of programs and services. Violence in Urban America: Mobilizing a Response (1994) summarizes a conference convened to communicate the information contained in several reports on violence and, in combination with experience from practice, to identify new approaches to and interventions against various manifestations of violence. Volunteers in Public Schools (1990) is an overview of volunteer activity in U.S. public schools—how volunteers are being used, what factors make

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Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence programs successful, what further research will enhance the ability to create effective programs, and what directions national policy should take. It includes reports of site visits to 13 "exemplary" programs. Youth Development and Neighborhood Influences: Challenges and Opportunities (1996) reports on a workshop that focused on what is known about environmental influences that interact with youth characteristics, family factors, and peer influences to foster or inhibit successful outcomes for adolescents; the report describes processes for community and family interactions during periods of adolescent development, reviews the literature on social settings and youth development, and touches on selected community youth service programs.