contracts. For discussions of this issue, see two articles by William P. Rogerson: “Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for Innovation,” Journal of Political Economy, 1989, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1284–1305; and “Economic Incentives and the Defense Procurement Process, ” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 8, no. 4, fall 1994, pp. 65–90.

7 See www.xprize.org. Last date accessed: 15 June 1999

8 For a general description of the CATS Prize, see www.space-frontier.org/EVENTS/CATSPRIZE_1/. For detailed rules, see http://www.space-frontier.org/EVENTS/CATSPRIZE_1/rules.html. Last date accessed: 15 June 1999.

9 See www.usgo.org/computer/icgc.html. Last date accessed: 15 June 1999.

10 See http://www.eff.org/coop-awards/prime-release1.html. Last date accessed: 15 June 1999.

11 Foresight Institute Web page, www.foresight.org.

12 Through 1998 the prize was called the European IT Prize. For 1999, the name was changed to the European IST Prize.

13www.it-prize.org

14 This description of the Wolkskehl prize is taken from Simon Singh, Fermat's Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World's Greatest Mathematical Problem, New York: Doubleday, 1997, particularly pages 121–125 and 284.

15 Harriet Zuckerman, “The Proliferation of Prizes: Nobel Complements and Nobel Surrogates in the Reward System of Science,” Theoretical Medicine, 13:217–231, 1992, page 217.

16 Notes: This brief list is not meant to be comprehensive. For a complete list, see Gale Research International, editor, Awards, Honors and Prizes, 15th edition, Volumes 1-2, Detroit: Gale Research International, 1999. Almost all of the prizes in the brief list above have Web pages; URLs for these are available from this paper's author. Also, several of the organizations listed above give prizes not only in science and technology but also in other fields, such as the arts; the Schock, Kyoto, Wolf, and Balzan prizes are examples. Only their science and technology awards are mentioned in this list.

17 Zuckerman, page 218.



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