The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
Radiation and the International Space Station: Recommendations to Reduce Risk
Construction of the International Space Station, a project of the United States (lead), Canada, Japan, the European Space Agency, and the Russian Federation, began in late 1998. The ISS is in orbit at an altitude of 250 statute miles with an inclination of 51.6 degrees. The first crew to live aboard the (partially assembled) space station is scheduled to arrive in March 2000. Assembly of the ISS is scheduled to continue until late 2004.
D.N. Baker, "Solar wind-magnetosphere drivers of space weather," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, pp. 1509-1526.
National Research Council, Committee on Solar and Space Physics and Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, Space Weather: A Research Perspective, available on the Internet at <www.nas.edu/ssb/cover.html>
See, for example, J.F. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, and D.N. Baker, eds., Radiation Belt Models: Models and Standards, Geophysical Monograph 97, Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union, 1996. The SAA has been monitored in detail sufficient to follow its westward drift of roughly 1 degree every 3 years owing to the secular variation of the geomagnetic field. G.D. Badhwar, "Drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly," J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1997, pp.2343-2349.
The National Research Council has produced a document on this topic (see footnote 5), which may be consulted for a fuller treatment and more detail.
Definition taken from the Strategic Plan of the National Space Weather Program, 1995, obtainable from the Upper Atmospheric Section of the Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation.
R.A. Howard, M.J. Koomen, D.J. Michels, R. Tousey, C.R. Detwiler, D.E. Roberts, R.T. Seal, and J.D. Whitney (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.) and R.T. Hansen, S.F. Hansen, C.J. Garcia, and E. Yasukawa (High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, Colo.), "Synoptic observations of the solar corona during Carrington rotations," 11 October 1971-15 January 1973, pp. 1580-1596 (Reissue of UAG-48 with quality images, February 1976, 200 pp. Supersedes UAG-48).
R.M. MacQueen, J.A. Eddy, J.T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R.H. Munro, G.A. Newkirk, A.I. Poland, and C.L. Ross, "The outer corona as observed from Skylab," Astrophys. J., 187, 1974, p. L85.
For more information about our current understanding of CMEs and their relation to other manifestations of solar and geomagnetic activity, see N.U. Crooker, J.A. Joselyn, and J. Feynman, eds., Coronal Mass Ejections, Geophys. Monogr. Ser.,99, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1997.
S.Kahler, "Solar flares and coronal mass ejections," Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 30,1992, pp. 113-141.
J.T. Gosling, "The solar flare myth," J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1993,p. 18937.
Gautam Badhwar, Presentation to CSSP/CSTR. This material, which was presented to CSSP at its meeting on January 26, 1998, is available for viewing in the National Research Council's Public Access Records Office.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities, Report No. 98, 1989, p. 70; R.W. Young, "Acute radiation syndrome," in Military Radiobiology , J.J. Conklin and R.I. Walker, eds., Academic Press, New York, 1987.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities, Report No. 98, 1989, p. 71.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities, Report No. 98, 1989, p. 73.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities, Report No. 98, 1989.
Figure from R. Turner and C. Kemere, "Solar particle events and International Space Station," Report submitted to the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, August 12, 1998.
The ground track was computed by the Analytical Graphics Incorporated (AGI) Satellite Tool Kit from the recent ISS ephemeris. The magnetic shielding boundaries are 30 MeV geomagnetic vertical cutoff calculations by Don Smart for Kp = 0 (quiet) and Kp = 9+ (active), from D.F. Smart, M.A. Shea, E.O. Flueckiger, A.J. Tylka, and P.R. Boberg, Changes in Calculated Vertical Cutoff Rigidities at the Altitude of the International Space Station As a Function of Geomagnetic Activity, 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Contributed Papers, Vol. 7, 1999, pp. 337-340. The South Atlantic Anomaly boundary is for 100 MeV protons with flux greater than 100 particles/cm2-sec, as calculated by C. Dyer, A. Sims, and C. Underwood using the NASA AP-8 model with a 1991 magnetic field model, in "Radiation belt observations from CREAM and CREDO," Geophysical Monograph 97, Radiation Belts: Models and Standards, J.F. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, and D.N. Baker, eds., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1996. The compilation was produced by Ron Turner and Stephen Thomas, ANSER, Arlington, Va.
V.A. Shurshakov et al., "Solar particle events observed on Mir station," in Proceedings of Workshop on Impact of Solar Energetic Particle Events for Design of Human Missions, September 9-11, 1997 , Center for Advanced Space Studies, Houston, 1998, pp. 1-18.
G.L. Siscoe, "What determines the size of the auroral oval?" in Auroral Physics, C.-I. Meng, M. Rycroft, and L.A. Frank, eds., Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 159-175.
See Note 2.
See Note 2.
J.T. Lett, W. Atwell, and M.J. Golightly, "Radiation hazards to humans in deep space: A summary with special reference to large solar particle events," in Solar-Terrestrial Predictions, Proceedings of a Workshop at Leura, Australia, October 16-20, 1989, Vol. 1, NOAA/ERL, 1990, pp. 140-153.