to implement (R2 and R3b), and recommendations that will take several years to implement (R3c and R5a). The research needed to improve space weather services in support of manned missions (described in Appendix A) is also shown in Figure ES.1. Research activities are organized into two groups: (1) those that can be implemented within 5 years (A1), with some of these activities being implemented within 1 year, and (2) those requiring more time to implement (A2).

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