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Radiation and the International Space Station: Recommendations to Reduce Risk Appendix D Acronyms and Abbreviations ACE Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA research spacecraft) AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory ALARA as low as reasonably achievable (operational flight rule for radiation management) APEXRAD model of radiation dose based on APEX satellite data BFO blood-forming organs CEPPAD comprehensive energetic particle and pitch angle distribution CIR corotating interaction regions CME coronal mass ejection CPD crew passive dosimeter CRRES Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (NASA research satellite) CRRESELE model of electron radiation belts based on CRESS data CRRESPRO model of proton radiation belts based on CRRES data CRRESRAD model of radiation doses based on CRRES data DMSP Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (a suite of polar-orbiting DOD satellites) DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DOI Department of the Interior EIT Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope ESA European Space Agency EUV extreme ultraviolet EVA extravehicular activity—astronauts in space suits outside a shuttle or station FAST Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer
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Radiation and the International Space Station: Recommendations to Reduce Risk GCR galactic cosmic ray GeV gigaelectronvolt (unit of energy = 1,000 MeV) GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (NOAA) GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center Gy gray (unit of radiation) HESSI High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (NASA research spacecraft) HRE highly relativistic electron HZE high z energetic particle, i.e., high-atomic-number particle IMEX Inner Magnetospheric Explorer IMF interplanetary magnetic field IMP Interplanetary Monitoring Program ISS International Space Station ISTP International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (a NASA program) JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory JSC Johnson Space Center (the NASA center responsible for ISS and shuttle operations) Kp index of geomagnetic activity L1 First Lagrangian point. Lagrangian points are points between two orbiting masses in which the gravitational pulls from both bodies are balanced exactly with the centripetal force required to rotate with them. Objects at these points then orbit at a constant distance from both masses. LASCO Large Angle and Spectrometic Coronagraph Experiment LEM lunar excursion module LEO low earth orbit, referring to a class of satellites MCC Mission Control Center MeV million electron volts (unit of energy) MHD magnetohydrodynamic MSC Manned Spacecraft Center MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRA NASA Research Announcement NSF National Science Foundation NSSDC National Space Science Data Center, located at GSFC NSWP National Space Weather Program OTTI Orbiting Technology Testbed Initiative (program within SEE) POES Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (NOAA) POLAR a high-altitude, polar-orbiting research satellite (NASA) RBE relative biological effectiveness RPC Rapid Prototyping Center at SEC and AFRL for expediting the transitioning of research into operations
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Radiation and the International Space Station: Recommendations to Reduce Risk SAA South Atlantic Anomaly SAMPEX Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (NASA research satellite) SEC Space Environment Center (NOAA) SEE Space Environment Effects program at MSFC SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (ESA/NASA research satellite) SPAN Solar Particle Alert Network SPE solar particle event SRAG Space Radiation Analysis Group (at Johnson Space Center) Sv sievert (unit of radiation) SWOP Space Weather Operations Center (at NOAA's SEC) STEREO Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (NASA research spacecraft) SXI Solar X-ray Imager TCEP tissue-equivalent proportional counter USAF United States Air Force
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