NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committees responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor.

Cover: Ground track of ISS orbits superposed on a globe along with polar cap areas (shown in yellow), where multimega-electron volt solar energetic particles penetrated to low altitudes during an SPE in November 1997. (Image courtesy of R.A. Leske, R.A. Mewaldt, E.C. Stone, and T.T. von Rosenvinge, “Geomagnetic Cutoff Variations During Solar Energetic Particle Events—Implications for the Space Station,” Proceedings of the 25th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 2, Space Research Unit, Department of Physics, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, South Africa, 1997, p. 381.)

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