Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility

Update on National Research Council Recommendations

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1999



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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Update on National Research Council Recommendations Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-99-C-0010 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06882-7 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM DAVID S. KOSSON, chair, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick CHARLES E. KOLB, vice chair, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts DAVID H. ARCHER, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PIERO M. ARMENANTE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark DENNIS C. BLEY, Buttonwood Consulting, Inc., Oakton, Virginia JERRY L. R. CHANDLER, George Mason University, McLean, Virginia (as of 7/1/99) FRANK P. CRIMI, Lockheed Martin (retired), Saratoga, California ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (until 3/31/99) J. ROBERT GIBSON, DuPont Life Sciences, Wilmington, Delaware MICHAEL R. GREENBERG, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick KATHRYN E. KELLY, Delta Toxicology, Crystal Bay, Nevada PETER B. LEDERMAN, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (as of 7/1/99) RICHARD S. MAGEE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (until 1/27/99) JAMES F. MATHIS, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas WALTER G. MAY, University of Illinois, Urbana (until 7/31/99) CHARLES I. McGINNIS, Consultant, Charlottesville, Virginia (as of 7/1/99) ALVIN H. MUSHKATEL, Arizona State University, Tempe (until 3/31/99) H. GREGOR RIGO, Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, Ohio KOZO SAITO, University of Kentucky, Lexington W. LEIGH SHORT, URS Greiner Woodward-Clyde (retired), Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (as of 7/1/99) ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta STEVEN R. TANNENBAUM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (as of 7/1/99) CHADWICK A. TOLMAN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM TUMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Research Associate WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Senior Project Assistant

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H. FORSTER, chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS L. MCNAUGHER, vice chair, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. ELIOT A. COHEN, School of International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington D.C. RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering, Glendale, California PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Columbus, Indiana EDWARD J. HAUG, NADS and Simulation Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois ELVIN R. HEIBERG, III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia GERALD J. IAFRATE, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International, Alexandria, Virginia KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JOHN E. MILLER, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia JOHN H. MOXLEY, III, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T. SINGLEY, III, Hicks & Associates, McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Staff Associate CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Preface The United States has maintained a stockpile of highly toxic chemical agents and munitions for more than half a century. In 1985, Public Law 99–145 mandated an "expedited" effort to dispose of M55 rockets containing unitary chemical warfare agents because of their potential for self-ignition. This program soon expanded into the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), whose mission was to eliminate the entire stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSDP developed the baseline incineration system for that purpose. Since 1987, the National Research Council (NRC), through its Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee), has overseen the Army's disposal program and has endorsed the baseline incineration system as an adequate technology for destroying the stockpile. In 1992, after setting several intermediate goals and dates, Congress enacted Public Law 102–484, which directed the Army to dispose of the entire stockpile of unitary chemical warfare agents and munitions by December 31, 2004. In the 1970s, the Army had commissioned studies of different disposal technologies and tested several of them. In 1982, the Army selected incineration as the method it would use for the disposal of agents and associated propellants and explosives and the thermal decontamination of metal parts. In 1984, the NRC Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents reviewed a range of disposal technologies and endorsed the Army's selection of incineration. In response to public concerns about incineration and the evolution of other potential disposal technologies, the NRC has also carried out several evaluations of alternative technologies and recommended the development of chemical detoxification technologies for application at the two stockpile storage sites where chemical agent is stored only in bulk (with no energetically configured munitions). Incineration technology is embodied in today's baseline incineration system, which was developed largely at the Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS) experimental facility at Tooele Army Depot, Utah. The first full-scale operational plant, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), in the Pacific Ocean southwest of Hawaii, was completed in 1990 and is nearing the conclusion of chemical weapons disposal operations on Johnston Island. Construction of the first disposal facility in the continental United States was started in 1989 at the Tooele Army Depot (now Deseret Chemical Depot) in Utah. The design of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF) represents a second generation baseline system, which incorporates improvements based on experience with the JACADS facility, advances in technology, and recommendations made by the Stockpile Committee. Systemization testing began in August 1993, and agent operations began on August 22, 1996. The Stockpile Committee has monitored operations at the TOCDF since the start-up of systemization. The following NRC reports were issued by the Stockpile Committee in its TOCDF oversight role: Review of Systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Risk Assessment and Management at the Deseret Chemical Depot and the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Published in 1996, the Systemization report reviewed the status of the TOCDF as systemization (pre-operational) testing was nearing completion and the facility was about to start agent operations. The report contained several sets of recommendations: some that were general and continuing; some that were to be coordinated with the start of agent operations; some that were to be completed prior to agent operations; and some that were to be completed during the first year of agent operations. The more recent Risk Assessment and Management (1997) report addressed issues related to the quantitative and health risk assessments performed for the TOCDF and the adjacent storage site and the Army's implementation of a risk management plan.

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Following up on the recommendations in the Systemization report and the Risk Assessment and Management report, this report reviews the status of the TOCDF after more than two years of agent operations. This report also follows up on relevant recommendations from earlier Stockpile Committee reports and a recent letter report, Public Involvement and the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. The committee's intent is to document the Army's responses to these recommendations, noting which ones have been satisfactorily addressed and which ones have not been completely or adequately addressed. The latter group will provide a basis for the Stockpile Committee's oversight in the future. Although the focus of this report is on the TOCDF, some of the findings and recommendations also apply to other sites and to the CSDP as a whole. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members Donald L. Siebenaler, Harrison T. Pannella, William E. Campbell, Delphine D. Glaze, Margo L. Francesco, and Carol R. Arenberg, in the production of this report. David S. Kosson, chair Charles E. Kolb, vice chair Committee On Review And Evaluation Of The Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: James G. Droppo, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Gene H. Dyer, Bechtel Corporation (retired) B. John Garrick, Garrick Consulting Erik B. Herzik, University of Nevada Ronald A. Hites, Indiana University David H. Johnson, PLG, Inc. Noam Lior, University of Pennsylvania Hyla Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics, Inc. (retired) Lanny D. Schmidt, University of Minnesota William Randall Seeker, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation Kimberly M. Thompson, Harvard University George W. Whitesides, Harvard University John Wreathall, John Wreathall & Company While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   6     Description of the Chemical Agent and Munitions Stockpile   6     Call for Disposal   6     Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program   6     Chemical Weapons Convention   7     Selection and Development of the Baseline Incineration System   8     Incineration System at the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility   8     Role of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program   10     Composition of the Stockpile Committee   10     Overview of Relevant NRC Recommendations   11     Purpose of This Report   11     Statement of Task   11 2   SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE AND PLANT OPERATIONS   14     Overview   14     Activities Since the Start of Agent Operations   14     Disposal Schedule   15     Trial Burns   16     Surrogate Trial Burns   17     Results of Surrogate Trial Burns   17     Agent Trial Burns   20     Implications of the Trial Burn Data for the Health Risk Assessment   25     Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Trial Burns   27     Improving Monitoring Systems for Agents and Nonagents   28     Background   28     False Positive ACAMS Alarms   29     Real-Time Detection of Significant Agent Releases   30     Summary of the Monitoring Issues   30     Overall Assessment   30 3   RISK MANAGEMENT   31     Committee Oversight   31     Overall Safety   31     Risk Assessment   32     Risk Management   32     Overview   32     Recommendations from the Systemization Report   33     Recommendations from the Risk Assessment and Management Report   34

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations 4   SAFETY PROGRAMS AND PERFORMANCE   38     Oversight   38     Assessment of Progress and Current Status   39     Implementation of the Safety Training Observation Program   39     Occupational Safety and Health Administration Voluntary Protection Program   39     Safety Metrics   40     Employee Involvement   42     Management Involvement and Commitment   42     Criteria for Award Fees   43     Programmatic Lessons Learned Program   43     Summary   43 5   PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS   44     Introduction   44     Public Involvement   44     Community Survey Research Plans   46     Emergency Management and Preparedness   47     Change Management Process   49 6   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   51     REFERENCES   56     APPENDICES         A Specific Design Features of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Baseline Incineration System   61     B Reports of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee)   71     C TOCDF-Related Recommendations by the Stockpile Committee Addressed in This Report   72     D Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   76

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Figures and Tables Figures 1-1   Location and size (percentage of original stockpile) of eight continental U.S. storage sites   7 1-2   Schematic drawing of the TOCDF incineration system   9 4-1   TOCDF recordable injury rate (RIR) 12-month rolling average since the start of agent operations   40 4-2   TOCDF 12-month recordable injury rate (RIR) rolling average and monthly RIRs from January 1998 to December 1998   41 4-3   Total injury 12-month rolling average for the TOCDF   42 5-1   PMCD's organizational elements directly related to risk management   49 A-1   Layout of the TOCDF   62 A-2   Rocket-handling system   63 A-3   Bulk handling system   64 A-4   Projectile-handling system   65 A-5   Mine-handling system   66 A-6   Deactivation furnace system   67 A-7   Metal parts furnace   67 A-8   Liquid incinerator   68 A-9   Dunnage furnace   68 A-10   Pollution abatement system   69 Tables 1-1   NRC Recommendations Addressed in This Report   12 1-2   Site Visits and Briefings   13 2-1   Surrogate Trial Burns for LIC-2 in January 1996   18 2-2   Surrogate Trial Burns for the MPF in June 1996   19 2-3   Surrogate Trial Burns for the DFS in September 1995   19 2-4   Agent Trial Burns of LIC-1 and LIC-2   21 2-5   Measured LIC-1 and LIC-2 Emissions or Reported Upper Limits That Exceed Values Estimated in the HRA   22 2-6   Agent Trial Burns for the DFS in January 1997   23 2-7   Measured DFS Emissions or Reported Upper Limits That Exceed Values Estimated in the HRA   24 2-8   Agent Trial Burns for the MPF in April 1997   25

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations 2-9   Measured MPF Emissions or Reported Upper Limits Higher Than Values Estimated in the HRA   26 2-10   Trial Burn Results for DFS PCB DREs   27 6-1   Summary of Prior and New NRC Recommendations   52

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations Acronyms ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring system ATB agent trial burn BRA brine reduction area CAC Citizens Advisory Commission CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System CEMS continuous emission monitoring system(s) CMP change management process CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CSEPP Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program CWC Chemical Weapons Convention DAAMS depot area air monitoring system DCD Deseret Chemical Depot DFS deactivation furnace system DRE destruction removal efficiency DSHW Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste DUN dunnage furnace EG&G Edgerton, Germerhausen and Grier EPA Environmental Protection Agency FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FTIR Fourier transform infrared (spectrometer) GA tabun (a nerve agent) GB sarin (a nerve agent) GC-MSD gas chromatograph-mass spectrometric detector H nondistilled mustard HD distilled mustard HRA health risk assessment HT thickened mustard ITEQ International Toxic Equivalence JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal system LIC liquid incinerator

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Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations MPF metal parts furnace NRC National Research Council OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OVT operational verification testing PAS pollution abatement system PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PCDD/F polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans PFPD pulsed-flame photometric detector PFS PAS carbon bed filter system PLL Programmatic Lessons Learned PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization POIO Public Outreach and Information Office PQL practical quantification limits QRA quantitative risk assessment RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RIR recordable injury rate RMP Risk Management Plan SVOC semivolatile organic compound TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act VOC volatile organic compound VX a nerve agent