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Causes/Types of Error

Cost (continued)


Johnson and Bootman, 1995
Drug-related morbidity and mortality

Drug-related morbidity and mortality costs an estimated $76.6 billion in the ambulatory setting in the United States. The panel members estimated that 40% of patients who receive drug therapy would have some form of DRP.

Drug-related problem—"an event or circumstance that involves a patient's drug treatment that actually, or potentially, interferes with the achievement of an optimal outcome."


Schneider et al., 1995
Cost of medication-related problems at a university hospital

349 clinical outcomes associated with medical related problems (MRPs) (average of approximately 3 outcomes per patient) were detected. For the 1,911 ADRs and medication errors reported through the voluntary reporting system in 1994, the estimated annual cost was just under $1.5 million.


Bloom, 1988
Cost of treating arthritis and NSAID-related gastrointestinal side-effects

In 1983, an estimated $3.9 million was spent on treating preventable gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions to NSAIDs.

Gastrointestinal adverse drug reaction—"any claim for payment accompanied by a diagnosis of peptic ulcer, gastritis/duodenitis, other disorders of the stomach or duodenum, gastrointestinal symptoms, or a pharmacy claim for an H2-recepter antagonist, sucralfate or antacid, which occurred during the arthritis treatment study period.


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