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methodologically, we do not yet have a complete picture of the epidemiology of errors. Many studies focus on patients experiencing injury and provide valuable insight into the magnitude of harm resulting from errors. Other studies, more limited in number, focus on the occurrence of errors, both those that result in harm and those that do not (sometimes called ''near misses"). More is known about errors that occur in hospitals than in other health care delivery settings.
Synthesizing and interpreting the findings in the literature pertaining to errors in health care is complicated due to the absence of standardized nomenclature. For purposes of this report, the terms error and adverse event are defined as follows:
An error is defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended (i.e., error of execution) or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim (i.e., error of planning).18
An adverse event is an injury caused by medical management rather than the underlying condition of the patient. An adverse event attributable to error is a "preventable adverse event."19 Negligent adverse events represent a subset of preventable adverse events that satisfy legal criteria used in determining negligence (i.e., whether the care provided failed to meet the standard of care reasonably expected of an average physician qualified to take care of the patient in question).20
When a study in the literature has used a definition that deviates from the above definitions, it is noted below.
Medication-related error has been studied extensively for several reasons: it is one of the most common types of error, substantial numbers of individuals are affected, and it accounts for a sizable increase in health care costs.21,22,23 There are also methodologic issues: (1) prescription drugs are widely used, so it is easy to identify an adequate sample of patients who experience adverse drug events; (2) the drug prescribing process provides good documentation of medical decisions, and much of this documentation resides in automated, easily accessible databases; and (3) deaths attributable to medication errors are recorded on death certificates. There are probably other areas of health care delivery that have been studied to a lesser degree but may offer equal or greater opportunity for improvement in safety.
Efforts to assess the importance of various types of errors are currently hampered by the lack of a standardized taxonomy for reporting adverse events, errors, and risk factors.24,25 A limited number of studies focus di-