References

Amr, A., A. Goldfarb, S. Haus, L. Hourcle, M. Simmons, A. Talib, D. Tripler, R. Wassmann, and A. Wusterbath. 1998. Preliminary Assessment of the Commercial Viability for CAIS Treatment and Disposal. MTR-1998-5. McLean, Va.: Mitretek Systems.


Bradbury, J.A., K.M. Branch, J.H. Heerwagen, and E.B. Liebow. 1994. Community Viewpoints of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories.

Brankowitz, W. 1998. Presentation by William Brankowitz, Office of the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, August 18, 1998, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Brankowitz, W., M. Witt, J. Ursillo, and J. Pantleo. 1983. Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado. Final Report, Vol. 1-3. Report No. DRTH-IS-FR-83203. August 1983. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency.

Brooks, M.E., and G.A. Parker. 1979. Incineration/Pyrolysis of Several Agents and Related Chemical Materials Contained in Identification Sets. ARCSL-TR-79040. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization.


CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1988. Final recommendations for protecting the health and safety against potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to low doses of agents GA, GB, VX, mustard agent (H, HD, T), and lewisite (L). Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register 53(50): 8504-8507.

Curlee, T.R., S.M. Schexnayder, D.P. Vogt, A.K. Wolfe, M.P. Kelsay, and D.L. Feldman. 1994. Waste to Energy in the United States: A Social and Economic Assessment. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.


Defense Environmental Alert. 1999. Citizens urge Army to dismiss incineration for non-stockpile weapons. Defense Environment Alert, March 9, 1999, pp. 6-7.

Dempsey, C.R., and E.T. Oppelt. 1993. Incineration of hazardous wastes: a critical review update. Air and Water 43: 25-73.

DiMichele, B. 1999. Response tackles hazards of chemical ordnance. Huntsville, Ala.: U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville Center Public Affairs Office. Available on line at URL: <www.hnd.ace.army.mil/oew/news/9raritan.html> .

DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation). 1996. North American Emergency Response Guidebook. Research and Special Projects Administration, Department of Transportation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.


Edelstein, M.R. 1988. Contaminated Communities: The Social and Psychological Impacts of Residential Toxic Exposure. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

EPA. 1989. Handbook: Guidance on Setting Permit Conditions and Reporting Trial Bum Results. Vol. 2 of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series. Office of



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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program References Amr, A., A. Goldfarb, S. Haus, L. Hourcle, M. Simmons, A. Talib, D. Tripler, R. Wassmann, and A. Wusterbath. 1998. Preliminary Assessment of the Commercial Viability for CAIS Treatment and Disposal. MTR-1998-5. McLean, Va.: Mitretek Systems. Bradbury, J.A., K.M. Branch, J.H. Heerwagen, and E.B. Liebow. 1994. Community Viewpoints of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Brankowitz, W. 1998. Presentation by William Brankowitz, Office of the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, August 18, 1998, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Brankowitz, W., M. Witt, J. Ursillo, and J. Pantleo. 1983. Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado. Final Report, Vol. 1-3. Report No. DRTH-IS-FR-83203. August 1983. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. Brooks, M.E., and G.A. Parker. 1979. Incineration/Pyrolysis of Several Agents and Related Chemical Materials Contained in Identification Sets. ARCSL-TR-79040. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1988. Final recommendations for protecting the health and safety against potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to low doses of agents GA, GB, VX, mustard agent (H, HD, T), and lewisite (L). Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register 53(50): 8504-8507. Curlee, T.R., S.M. Schexnayder, D.P. Vogt, A.K. Wolfe, M.P. Kelsay, and D.L. Feldman. 1994. Waste to Energy in the United States: A Social and Economic Assessment. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books. Defense Environmental Alert. 1999. Citizens urge Army to dismiss incineration for non-stockpile weapons. Defense Environment Alert, March 9, 1999, pp. 6-7. Dempsey, C.R., and E.T. Oppelt. 1993. Incineration of hazardous wastes: a critical review update. Air and Water 43: 25-73. DiMichele, B. 1999. Response tackles hazards of chemical ordnance. Huntsville, Ala.: U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville Center Public Affairs Office. Available on line at URL: <www.hnd.ace.army.mil/oew/news/9raritan.html> . DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation). 1996. North American Emergency Response Guidebook. Research and Special Projects Administration, Department of Transportation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. Edelstein, M.R. 1988. Contaminated Communities: The Social and Psychological Impacts of Residential Toxic Exposure. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. EPA. 1989. Handbook: Guidance on Setting Permit Conditions and Reporting Trial Bum Results. Vol. 2 of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series. Office of

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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Research and Development. EPA/625/6-89/019. Washington D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. 1998a. Communication from Region IX staff member. Defense Environment Alert, January 26, 1999, p. 8. EPA. 1998b. Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities. Vol. 1. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. 1999. Personal communication from Norma J. Abdul-Malik, Office of Solid Waste, Permits and State Programs Division, to staff of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, February 16, 1999. Fatz, R.J. 1997. Memorandum from Raymond J. Fatz, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army, to distribution. Subject: Interim Guidance for Biological Warfare Materiel (BWM) and Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel (CWM) Response Activities. September 5, 1997. Fiorino, D.J. 1990. Citizen participation and environmental risk: a survey of institutional mechanisms. Science, Technology, and Human Values 15: 226-243. Freudenberg, N. 1994. Citizen action for environmental health: report on a survey of community organizations. American Journal of Public Health 74: 444-448. Ginsburg, R. 1992. Beyond the Rush to Burn: Alternatives to Hazardous Waste Incineration. Boston: National Toxics Campaign Fund. Hunter, S., and K.M. Leyden. 1995. Beyond NIMBY: Explaining opposition to hazardous waste facilities. Policy Studies Journal 23 (4): 601-619. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Committee on the Survey of the Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite, Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Kasperson, R.E., D. Golding, and S. Tuler, 1992. Social distrust as a factor in siting hazardous facilities and communicating risk. Journal of Social Issues 48(4): 161-187. Kentucky Environmental Foundation. 1998. Public Health and Chemical Weapons Incineration. Berea, Ky.: Kentucky Environmental Foundation. Kovalyev, N.N. 1997. Personal communication to G. W. Parshall, member of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, at a meeting of the Monterey-Moscow Study Group on Russian Chemical Disarmament, Monterey, California, February 25, 1997. Kummling, K.E., E.A. Chisholm, and F.T. Arnold. 1999. Application of Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction for Chemical Weapons Demilitarization. Presented to the DERA Chemical Weapons Demilitarization Conference, Vienna, Austria, June 8, 1999. Lee, J.W., R.W. Ross, R.H. Vocque, J.W. Lewis, and L.R. Waterland. 1987. Distribution of volatile trace elements in emissions and residuals from pilot-scale liquid injection incineration. Pp. 254-261, 524, in Proceedings of the 13th Annual Research Symposium. EPA Report No. 600/9-87/015. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency. Lee, J.W., W.E. Whitworth, and I.R. Waterland. 1992. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of the Thermal Stability POHC Incinerability Ranking. EPA/600/SR-92/065. May 1992. Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. Washington D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency. Libby, E. 1999. Personal communication from Edmund Libby, Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to staff of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, August 19, 1998. Lucas, S.V. 1997. Development and Performance Testing of a Chemical Analysis Method for Sulfur Mustard (HD), Nitrogen Mustard (HN1) and Lewisite (L) in

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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Rapid Response System (RRS) Neutralization Solutions. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Memorial Institute. Maggio, C. 1998. Lewisite Demilitarization. Presentation by Cheryl Maggio, U.S. Army, Office of the Product Manager, Alternative Technologies and Approaches, Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 25, 1998. Martens, H. 1998. Recovered old arsenical and mustard munitions in Germany. Pp. 33-78 in Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and "Mustard" Munitions, J. F. Bunnett and M. Mikolaczyk, eds. Proceedings of a NATO Workshop, March 1996, Lodz, Poland. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. McAndless, J.M., V. Fedor, and T. Kinderwater. 1992. Destruction and Waste Treatment Methods Used in a Chemical Agent Disposal Project. Ralston, Alberta, Canada: Defense Research Establishment Suffield. (Available from National Technical Information Service as Report No. AD A259 689.) Mitre. 1993. Summary Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing. MTR93W0000036. May 1993. McLean, Va.: Mitre Corporation. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). 1995. Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations. Part III. Report No. FM 8-9. Brussels: North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NRC. 1993. Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994a. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994b. Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing. Part 2. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996a. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies. Panel on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996b. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Committee on Risk Characterization, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical Warfare Agents. Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1998. Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999a. Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile

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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999b. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Petrov, S.V., V.I. Kholstov, V.P. Zoubriline, and N.W. Zaviolova. 1998. Practical actions of Russia on preparation for destruction of stockpiled lewisite and mustard. Pp. 79-90 in Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and "Mustard" Munitions, J. F. Bunnett and M. Mikolaczyk, eds. Proceedings of a NATO Workshop, March 1996, Lodz, Poland. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Proctor, N.H., and J.P. Hughes. 1978. Chemical Hazards of the Workplace. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. Rabe, B.G., 1994. Beyond NIMBY: Hazardous waste siting in Canada and the United States. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Schmauder, C. 1997. Memorandum from Craig R. Schmauder, Office of Counsel, U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, Alabama, to Commander, U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville. Subject: Transportation of Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) to Commercial Facilities for Disposal. September 15, 1997. Shaw, R.W., and M.J. Cullinane. 1998. Destruction of military toxic materials . Pp. 2821-2836 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation. R.A. Myers, ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Available on line at URL: <www.aro.army.mil/chemb/people/milremed.html> . Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein, 1979. Rating the risks. Environment 21(3): 14-39. Spritzer, M.H., D.A. Hazlebeck, and K.W. Downey. 1995. Supercritical Water Oxidation of Chemical Agents, Solid Propellants and Other Hazardous Wastes. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc. Smithson, A.E. 1994. The U.S. Chemical Weapons Destruction Program: Views, Analysis, and Recommendations. Report Number 13. September 1994. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center. Szasz, A. 1994. Ecopopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1993. Interim Survey and Analysis Report. Prepared by the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. April 1993. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1994. U.S. Army's Alternative Demilitarization Technology Report to Congress. Department of the Army. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1995a. Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) Information Package. Prepared by the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. November 1995. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1995b. Recovered Chemical Warfare Material. Pp. 27-29 in Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety. Army Regulation (AR) 50-6. Effective March 1, 1995. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army.

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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program APPENDICES

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