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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAG55-98-C-0046 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06879-7 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM JOHN B. CARBERRY, chair, E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware JOHN C. ALLEN, ICF Kaiser, Boston, Massachusetts LISA M. BENDIXEN, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts JUDITH A. BRADBURY, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. MARTIN C. EDELSON, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa SIDNEY J. GREEN, TerraTek, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah PAUL F. KAVANAUGH, consultant, Fairfax, Virginia DOUGLAS M. MEDVILLE, MITRE (retired), Reston, Virginia JAMES W. MERCER, HSI GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, Virginia WINIFRED G. PALMER, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Frederick, Maryland GEORGE W. PARSHALL, E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company (retired), Wilmington, Delaware JAMES P. PASTORICK, GEOPHEX UXO, Alexandria, Virginia WILLIAM J. WALSH, Pepper Hamilton LLP, Washington, D.C. RONALD L. WOODFIN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison E.R. (VALD) HEIBERG, III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia Staff TRACY D. WILSON, study director (until 6/99) MICHAEL A. CLARKE, study director GREG EYRING, consultant ROBERT J. KATT, consulting technical writer HARRISON T. PANNELLA, research associate SHIREL R. SMITH, senior project assistant (until 3/99) DELPHINE D. GLAZE, administrative assistant (since 3/99) MARGO L. FRANCESCO, publication manager
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM "BUD" H. FORSTER, chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS L. MCNAUGHER, vice chair, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT S. DECKER, consultant, Los Gatos, California ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois E.R. (VALD) HEIBERG III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia GERALD J. IAFRATE, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Hicks & Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, associate director MARGO L. FRANCESCO, administrative associate DEANNA SPARGER, senior project assistant ALVERA V. WILSON, financial associate
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Preface The Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program (see Appendix A) was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct studies on technical aspects of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program. During its first year, the committee has evaluated a U.S. Department of Defense assessment of plans for the disposal of chemical agent identification sets—test kits used for soldier training. In its second year, the committee will provide recommendations on the midterm plans for the non-stockpile disposal program. During its initial meetings, the committee received a number of briefings (see Appendix B) and held subsequent deliberations. The committee is grateful to the many individuals, particularly Colonel Edmund W. ("Ned") Libby, project manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, and his staff, who provided technical information and insights during these briefings. This information provided a sound foundation for the committee's work. This study was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Board on Army Science and Technology. The committee acknowledges the support of Director Bruce A. Braun, and the board staff. The chair is also particularly grateful to the members of this committee, who along with the study director, the committee support staff, and the publication staff, worked diligently and effectively on a demanding schedule to produce this report. John B. Carberry, chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: William B. Bacon, consultant John C. Bailar, University of Chicago Joan B. Berkowitz, Farkas Berkowitz & Company P.L. Thibaut Brian, (retired) Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Peter L. deFur, Virginia Commonwealth University Elisabeth M. Drake, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Donald E. Gardner, Inhalation Toxicology Associates David S. Kosson, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey David P. Rall, (retired) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Michael J. Ryan, Bechtel Jacobs Co., LLC Barry M. Trost, Stanford University While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 Classification and Regulation of CAIS for Transport and Disposal, 2 Commercial Incineration, 3 Rapid Response System, 6 Nonincineration-Based Options, 7 A Path Forward, 8 1 INTRODUCTION 11 Statement of Task and Congressional Direction, 12 Chemical Agents and CAIS, 14 Programs for Disposing of CAIS and Other Chemical Warfare Materiel, 22 Legal and Regulatory Context for CAIS Disposal, 28 International Approaches to CAIS Disposal, 29 CAIS and the Chemical Weapons Convention, 30 2 DISPOSAL ALTERNATIVES 31 Alternatives Considered, 31 Alternatives Selected for Analysis, 37 3 ISSUES TO CONSIDER 38 Technology, 38 Laws and Regulations, 39 Costs, 41 Environmental Impacts, Worker/Public Safety, and Risks, 43 Public/Stakeholder Involvement, 47 Programmatic Considerations, 51 4 REVIEW OF THE COMMERCIAL INCINERATION OPTION 53 Technology, 53 Laws and Regulations, 59 Costs, 60 Environmental Impacts, Worker/Public Safety, and Risks, 65 Public/Stakeholder Involvement, 67 Programmatic Considerations, 73
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program 5 ALTERNATIVES TO COMMERCIAL INCINERATION OF CAIS 75 Baseline, Mobile Rapid Response System, 75 Fixed Rapid Response System, 82 Nonincineration Alternatives, 86 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 94 Classification and Regulation of CAIS for Transport and Disposal, 94 Commercial Incineration, 98 Rapid Response System, 101 Nonincineration-Based Options, 103 A Path Forward, 103 REFERENCES 105 APPENDICES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, 113 B Committee Meetings and Other Activities, 117 C Methods of Treating Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, 122 D Legal Context for CAIS Disposal, 125
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Figures, Tables, and Boxes FIGURES 1-1 Army photographs of four CAIS types, 19 2-1 CAIS disposal alternatives, 32 3-1 Comparison of acute lethal concentrations of CAIS chemicals and some highly toxic industrial chemicals, 46 TABLES 1-1 Chemical Names and Formulas of CAIS Chemicals, 15 1-2 Characteristics and Biological Effects of CAIS Chemicals, 16 1-3 CAIS Types and Components, 20 1-4 Recovered CAIS Currently in Storage, 23 1-5 Potential CAIS Burial Sites, as Reported to Congress by the Army, 24 1-6 Status of Agent Destruction at JACADS and TOCDF, as of April 25, 1999, 25 2-1 Commercial Incinerator Facilities with Hazardous Waste Permits, 34 3-1 Properties of Sulfur Mustard and Lewisite, 44 4-1 Summary Evaluation of the Commercial Incineration Option, 54 5-1 Summary Evaluation of the Mobile RRS Option, 76 5-2 Summary Evaluation of the Fixed RRS Option, 84 5-3 Summary Evaluation of Selected Nonincineration Options, 87 6-1 Summary Evaluation of all CAIS Disposal Options, 95
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program BOXES 1-1 Use of CAIS, 18 3-1 Case Study: CAIS Recovery at the Raritan Arsenal, 40 3-2 Workplace Exposure Standards, 45 3-3 Risk Analysis Process, 48 3-4 Assessing the Public Acceptability of CAIS Disposal Options, 50 5-1 Expedient CAIS Disposal System, 83
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program Acronyms and Abbreviations ACAMS Automatic Chemical Agent Monitoring System ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ATA Alternative Technologies and Approaches Program CAIS chemical agent identification sets CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act CWC Chemical Weapons Convention CWM chemical warfare materiel DAAMS Depot Area Air Monitoring System DCD Deseret Chemical Depot DRE destruction and removal efficiency ECS Expedient CAIS Disposal System EDS Emergency Destruction System EPA Environmental Protection Agency GB sarin (nerve agent) HD sulfur mustard, distilled JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System MEA monoethanolamine MMAS Multiple Munitions Assessment System MINICAMS Miniature Continuous Air Monitoring System MMD munitions management device NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NRC National Research Council NSCMP Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program
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Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets: Review of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Disposal Program OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PIG package in-transit gas shipment PINS portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RRS Rapid Response System SCWO supercritical water oxidation TDG thiodiglycol TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility USC United States Code UXO unexploded ordnance VX a nerve agent