Click for next page ( 2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 1
Background On November 6, 1984, the government of General Augusto Pinochet declared a "state of siege" in Chile. This action was taken, the government said, because of an outbreak of political violence and to counteract an increase in terrorism. There were 735 bombing attacks in 1984 according to the U.S. Department of State.1 Chile has been under one or more "states of exception" almost continuously since the military coup in 1973 that brought Augusto Pinochet to the presidency. The states include "state of danger of disturbance to internal peace," "state of emer- gency," and state of siege, which are provided for under the Transitory Articles of the September 1980 Chilean constitution. A state of siege was put into effect in September 1973 and remained in effect until March 1978, when it was replaced by a state of emergency. On March 11, 1981, a state of danger to internal peace was put into effect con. current with the state of emergency. When a state of siege was declared in November 1984, a state of danger and a state of emergency were already in force. Under Transitory Article 24, when the president declares a state of danger, the minister of the interior is vested with the authority to detain people incommunicado for up to 20 days without charges or to banish them to internal exile ~ relegation ~ for up to 90 days, subject to extension, without trial or judicial 1

OCR for page 1
2 appeal. Lions, such as strict press censorship, suspension of publication, and a curfew' the curfew was in effect from midnight until MOO a.m. while the delegation was in Santiago. A state of siege, under Article 41, also allows the president to banish people to internal exile until the state of siege is lifted. (While the state of siege was lifted on June 17, 1985, the other states of emergency remained in effect.) Following the November 1984 declaration of a state of siege, reports of violations of human rights in Chile began to increase significantly. This led the Committee on Human Rights to consider sending a delegation to Chile. Of particular con- cern to the committee were reports that security forces had detained several scientists, engineers, and medical professionals, held them cado detention, and subsequently banished them to small villages in remote areas of the country. Uni- versity teachers were also reportedly harassed or dismissed from their jobs, presumably for political reasons. These disturbing reports of new violations The state of siege added more restric . ~ In ~ncommun~- of human rights in Chile were added to the commit- tee's long-standing concerns about colleagues re- ported to have "disappeared" since 1973 and whose cases had never been resolved. (Disappeared is a term that has come to be used to describe people who have vanished after being abducted by plain- clothes or uniformed police or troops.) There was also concern about colleagues who had been impris- oned and about whom the committee had received no further information, as well as allegations of tor- ture by members of the Chilean security forces and the possible involvement of medical professionals in torture. After February 2, 1985, when the state of siege was extended for another 90 days due to "internal con wlsion," strong support developed for a commit- tee delegation within the Academy complex and from a number of human rights organizations and profes- sional scientific societies. With the approval of Frank Press, president of the NAS, the delegation

OCR for page 1
3 of the Academy's Committee on Human Rights went to Santiago on March 17 and was in Chile for almost one week, until March 22. The delegation to Chile had three major objec- tives: (1) to meet with government and university officials, members of the scientific and legal com- munities, representatives of scientific, medical, and human rights organizations, and victims of human rights abuses to discuss the concerns of the members of the Committee on Human Rights and the U.S. scientific community regarding reports of human rights abuses affecting scientists, engi- neers, and medical professionals, (2) to gather information on the status of colleagues reportedly banished to internal exile or dismissed from their jobs in recent months' and (3) to obtain informa- tion on the whereabouts and legal status of scien- tists and medical professionals who reportedly have been imprisoned or disappeared since 1973. Prior to the delegation's departure for Chile, the committee staff arranged for meetings to be held in Santiago with several human rights groups and scientific organizations. In addition, the delegates contacted several U.S.-based human rights groups and professional societies to ensure that the information on the cases about which the dele- gation would be making inquiries was as up to date and accurate as possible. The presidents of both the American Physical Society and the American Mathematical Society ex- pressed support for the delegation and requested that information be obtained on cases of particular concern to their societies. Committee chair Eliot Stellar wrote to Hernan Felipe Errazuriz, the Chilean ambassador to Wash- ington, about the committee's plans for the delega- tion and requested that committee representatives be given an opportunity to meet with him, before the delegation's departure, to express the commit- tee's concerns and to request appointments with various government officials in Santiago. Ambas- sador Errazuriz promptly agreed to meet with the committee's representatives.

OCR for page 1
4 The meeting was held on March 15, 1985, at the Embassy of Chile. It was attended by committee member Christian Anfinsen, committee director Carol Corillon, Ambassador Errazuriz, his minister coun- selor, Octavio Errazuriz, and the ambassador's first secretary, Alfonso Silva. The committee representa- tives explained the purpose of the delegation's visit to Chile and told Ambassador Errazuriz that, although the visit would be private, a public report would be issued following the delegation's return to the United States. (The delegates felt strongly that, given the private and information-gathering nature of their trip and the existing political sit- uation, they should maintain a low profile while in Chile and decline any requests for interviews from the press.) The committee representatives gave the embassy officials a list of colleagues reported to have been banished to internal exile without charges or trial in recent months, or arrested or disap- neared in vears nest (see Appendix A). Ambassador Errazuriz was also given a list of Chilean govern- ment and university officials with whom the members of the delegation wanted to meet. told the committee representatives that the committee's lists would be sent to the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs and that the ministry's assistance to the mission would be requested. Prior to the departure of the delegation, cour- tesy visits were requested at the U.S. Department of State with David Dlouhy, country officer for Chile, and Elliott Abrams, assistant secretary of state in the Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitar fan Affairs. Baruch Blumberg and Carol Corillon met with David Dlouhy and, since Elliott Abrams was not available, they met with members of his staff-- James Thyden, director of the bureau's Office of Human Rights, and Marianne Gustafson, regional officer for Latin America. The delegates expressed the committee's concerns and described the objec- tives of the mission. They asked David Dlouhy to request that the American Embassy in Santiago assist the delegates in making appointments with Chilean - The ambassador -

OCR for page 1
5 government officials. Mr. Dlouhy said that he would convey the delegates' request. While in Chile, the delegation members met with, among others: Ricardo Garcia Rodriguez, the newly appointed minister of the interior Mario Calderone, special ambassador for human rights to the United Nations Economic and Social Council in Paris and the Human Rights Commission in Geneva Enrique Carvallo Diaz, director of the Diplomatic Academy Andres Bello Leonidas Irarrazaval Barros, member of the Council of Advisers to the Foreign Minister Rafael Retamal, the elected president of the Supreme Court Cardinal Raul Silva Henriquez James D. Theberge, U.S. ambassador to Chile Paul Depis, French ambassador to Chile The rectors and staff of the Universidad de Chile (University of Chile) and Universidad Catolica de Chile (Catholic University of Chile) Members of the Academia Chilena de Ciencias (Chilean Academy of Sciences) Members of the Academia Chilena de Medicina (Chilean Academy of Medicine) Members of the Colegio Medico de Chile (Medical Association of Chile) Members of the Comision Chilena de Derechos Humanos (Chilean Human Rights Commission) Members of the Vicars de la Solidaridad del Arzobispado de Santiago (Vicariate of Solidarity of the Archdiocese of Santiago) Members of the Asociacion Universitaria y Cultural Andres Bello (Andres Bello University and Cul- tural Association) Members of Corporacion de Investigaciones Econo- micas pare Latinoamerica (CIEPLAN, Center for Economic Research for Latin America) Members of the Corporacion de Promocion Universitaria (Center for the Advancement of Universities)

OCR for page 1
6 Members of the Comision Nacional Contra la Tortura (National Commission Against Torture) Members of the Fundacion de Ayuda Social de las Iglesias Cristianas (Christian Churches' Social Assistance Foundation) (For additional information about the human rights and scientific groups and associations contacted in Chile, see Appendices B and C, respectively.) In addition to these meetings, Chilean scien- tists in Santiago invited Professors Blumberg and Debreu to give scientific lectures in their fields of specialization. Professor Blumberg ] ectured on hepatitis B virus and the prevention of primary cancer of the liver at the Hospital Cl~nico/Univer- sidad de Chile, and Dr. Debreu lectured on economic equilibrium and the function of prices at CIEPLAN.