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Conclusions and Recommendations While in Chile, the delegation's meetings were wide-ranging and diverse. The Chilean ambassador to the United States was very helpful in arranging meetings with government officials who in turn ar- ranged appointments with educational, professional, and administrative officials. The discussions with government and university officials were quite open, opinions were frankly voiced, ideas were exchanged, and a range of views on political and social matters was expressed. It is hoped that the contacts made will prove effective in making known any future human rights concerns of the committee and of other members of the U.S. scientific community. Meetings held with human rights organizations and various individuals were informative. Meetings held with professional associations were thorough and sober. The delegates greatly admire the dedicated manner in which these organizations and associations work in defense of threatened colleagues. During their stay in Chile, the delegates also met with about a dozen members of the Academia Chilena de Ciencias at an informal meeting chaired by its president, Igor Saveedra. Because one of the long-standing, general objectives of the Committee on Human Rights is to establish relation- ships with academies of science in other countries in order to exchange information on reports of violations of human rights directed against scientists, engineers, and medical professionals, 37

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38 this meeting was important to the committee. The delegates described the work of the committee and the objectives of the mission to Chile. Several members of the Chilean academy expressed their con- cern about colleagues in Chile who had been expelled from their university positions. The academy, they said, was assisting scientists dismissed from their posts, like Rubi Rodriguez (see above), to find other jobs. Internal Exile The committee was pleased to learn that, during the delegation's visit, all of the colleagues who were internally exiled and who had been the object of inquiries by the committee were released. The com- mittee remains concerned, however, that the practice of banishing people to internal exile for the non- violent expression of their beliefs remains in effect under Transitory Article 24 of the 1980 Chilean constitution. For instance, Dr. Pedro Castillo, a surgeon and president of the nongovernmental National Commission Against Torture, was arrested at his home by agents of Investigaciones (plainclothes civil police) on August 4, 1985, and subsequently banished without charges or trial to Melinka, a tiny village on the practically inaccessible island of Ascension in the Archipelaga de las Guaitecas in the southern part of Chile. The island is about 830 miles from his home. On August 22, after strong international protest, including telegrams of concern sent by the Academy's Committee on Human Rights as well as a meeting and telephone conversations with the Chilean ambassador to Washington, Dr. Castillo was unconditionally released by the minister of the interior.ll The Committee on Human Rights urges that colleagues who lost their jobs when ban- ished be allowed to return immediately to their former places of employment and to resume their forcer positions.

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39 The Committee on Human Rights asks that colleagues like Dr. Juan Restelli, who have been subjected to violence and threats, be given full protection against such attacks by the Chilean government. Exile The delegates are very concerned about Chilean col- leagues who have not been permitted to return to Chile and who are unable to continue their scien tific careers. The Committee on Human Rights urges that those Chilean colleagues who desire to return to Chile be permitted by the Chil- ean authorities to do so and that, in the interim, any efforts to continue their scientific work in exile be facilitated to the greatest extent possible by their colleagues abroad. Imprisonment The delegates are not aware of any scientists, en- gineers, or medical professionals who are impris- oned in Chile for political reasons at this time. They were gratified to learn that Alfredo Iriarte Iriarte and Ramon Arriagada are now free. They remain deeply concerned, however, that Contreras Maluje has not been seen since he was picked up by DINA agents in 1976 and that the government of Chile has never accounted for his whereabouts. The Committee on Human Rights again urges the government of Chile to thoroughly in- vestigate the circumstances of Contreras Maluje's arrest and subsequent disap- pearance, to provide a public accounting of his whereabouts, and to bring those believed responsible to justice.

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40 Torture - The delegates are convinced that torture exists in Chile and that it is widespread. The Committee on Human Rights urges scientific colleagues to condemn the use of torture in Chile. The committee also urges the government of Chile to take all necessary measures to end torture, to investigate all reports of torture, and to bring those believed responsible to justice. The Committee on Human Rights urges all professional and medical organizations to provide encouragement of and support for the efforts of the Colegio Medico de Chile in setting ethical guidelines for medical personnel called on to examine detainees. The Committee on Human Rights urges that the guidelines set out by the Colegio Me- dico de Chile, which were listed earlier, be followed by all physicians. The Committee on Human Rights requests that the government of Chile allow all detainees to have immediate and regular access to a physician who is independent of the security forces. Desaparecidos More than 600 people are reported to have dis- appeared in Chile since General Pinochet came to power, and not a single person has been indicted The dele- of Chile has not made a concerted effort to find those be- lieved responsible and to bring them to justice. for involvement in any of these cases. gates are convinced that the government

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41 The Committee on Human Rights urges the government of Chile to begin immediately an open and independent investigation of the disappearances of those individuals listed in Appendix A of this report, as well as the hundreds of other people who have disappeared, and to bring those believed responsible to justice. Academic Freedom It was not possible for the delegates to ascertain, in the limited amount of time spent in Santiago, which of the cases of possible abuses of academic freedom that were brought to their attention were or were not actual abuses. However, there was certainly a strong sense of concern and desire for change expressed to them by many of the colleagues with whom they spoke. Such "abuses" appear to have created a climate among academic staff of insecurity and general distrust. A number of professional colleagues with whom the delegates met--who were very outspoken in condemning human rights abuses in Chile--emphasized, neverthe- less, that international scientific contacts should be continued, no matter what political situation exists. They said that boycotts of scientific meet- ings and conferences for political reasons hurt only the Chilean scientists themselves. The committee urges continued contacts with Chilean scientists in- cluding possible scientific training, particularly in view of the low budgets for academic and scien- tific institutions. The Committee on Human Rights urges that U.S. scientists continue, and augment if possible, direct and personal scientific communication and exchanges with Chilean colleagues.