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Notes 1 See U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1984, February 1985, pp. 451-453. 2 Fanny Pollarolo provides psychotherapeutic as- sistance to victims of torture and their families. She works with FASIC (Fundacion de Ayuda Social de la Iglesias Cristianas--Foundation of Social Assis- tance of the Christian Churches--see Appendix B), and she is a member of the Comision Medica de la Comision Chilena de Derechos Humanos (Medical Com- mission of the Chilean Human Rights Commission). She was reportedly arrested on November 21, 1984, and beaten before being banished to internal exile 3 The CNI, whose predecessor was the Directorate of National Intelligence (DINA), is Chile's primary intelligence agency and secret police organization. It is under the direct control of President Pinochet. DINA, which was created after the 1973 coup d'etat, was abolished in 1977 after it became notorious for its abuses of human rights, including "disappearances" and the involvement of its agents in the 1976 assassination of Orlando Letelier, an ambassador under the former Allende government then living in exile in the United States. 4 Two of the men, Manuel Caballos Guerrero, the regional secretary of a teachers union, and Jose 42

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43 Manuel Parada, a human rights worker for the Catho- lic church, were kidnapped at gunpoint in Santiago on March 29, 1985, by several unidentified men. Their bodies were found the following day, their throats had been slit, and their bodies reportedly showed signs of torture. The body of another man, Santiago Nattino Allende, an artist, was reportedly found nearby. These murders prompted mass demon- strations and protests in Santiago that were contin- uing in August as this report was being completed. On August 1, according to press reports, a Chil- ean Appeals Court judge, Jose Canovas Robles, who was named by the Supreme Court at the request of the government as a special prosecutor, indicted 2 officers of the Carabineros for involvement in the March murders and barred another 12, including 2 colonels, from leaving the country. As an apparent consequence of these actions, 14 policemen were re- portedly suspended from the force, and on August 2 General Cesar Mendoza, the commander of the police ~= TU== '=~1 Area hv General Rodolfo Stance, his _ deputy. Because the Carabineros refused to cooperate in the investigation, on August 30, according to press reports, Judge Canovas declared himself powerless to continue the investigation and referred the case to a military prosecutor who refused it. Subse- quently, a five-man Supreme Court panel ruled that military courts had no jurisdiction, giving Judge Canovas authority to investigate the murders. 5 A detailed article on Orrego's plight appeared in the December 1984 issue of Vida Medica, an official publication of the Colegio Medico de Chile. 6 See U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs, "Phenomenon of Tor- ture," pp. 199-239. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, May 15-16, 1984, 98th Congress, 2nd Session.

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44 7 According to press reports, in mid-August 1985 a military prosecutor charged four police officials in the death of Godoy Echegoyen, an engineering student who was arrested in February 1985 and died while in police custody. The Comision Chilena de Derechos Humanos has claimed that Echegoyen died from torture inflicted by the police. The police have claimed that Echegoyen had a heart attack and died while being taken to a hospital for treatment. 8 Torture is defined in Part I, Article 1, of the the United Nations Convention Against Torture, adopted on December 10, 1984, as "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or men- tal, is intentionally inflicted on a person for =~1 ru,-~ as oDralnlng Prom nlm or a third per- son information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official ca- pacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to lawful sanctions." . , . . . _ 9 Dr. Carlos Trejo, president of the Ethics De- partment of the Colegio Medico, said that when the colegio was created in 1948, all graduating physi- cians were required to register with the colegio. However, in 1973 the registration requirement was revoked, and all professional associations lost the right to elect their leaders. The officers of the Colegio Medico were designated by the military au- thorities until late 1981, when democratic elections were restored to the colegio. The current member- ship of the colegio is more than 9,000 physicians. 10 Declaracion del Consejo General del Colegio Medico de Chile, Santiago, Chile, October 29, 1984.

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45 11 Dr. Castillo, who is 58 years old, is a member of the Colegio Medico de Chile and president of the Comision Nacional Contra la Tortura. Dr. Castillo was a professor of surgery at the Universidad de Chile until the military coup in 1973. Since that time he has been denied access to hospital posi- tions. Dr. Castillo was arrested previously, in 1981, and accused of illegal political activities. A civil court dismissed the government's 1981 charges against Dr. Castillo and he was released. It is believed that the real reason for his ar- rests, both then and now, is his work on behalf of torture victims. ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 12 Following extensive appeals in behalf of Rubi Rodriguez by colleagues in Chile and abroad, she was hired in August 1985 as a professor in the De- partment of Mathematics of the Universidad Federico Santa Maria in Valparaiso.

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