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F· ~. 1ncllngs This section of the report presents the delega- tion's findings on detention and internal banish- ment, exile, imprisonment, torture, "disappeared" people, and academic freedom. It contains informa- tion obtained by the delegates from a variety of reliable sources in Chile and information gathered both prior to and following the mission. TEMPORARY DETENTION AND INTERNAL BANISHMENT The Scope of the Practice . The committee was told that many of the people who were detained and subsequently sent into internal exile without charges are believed to have been banished for political reasons: i.e., they voiced criticism of the government or its practices, they are human rights or labor union activists, they were involved in demonstrations against the govern - ment/ or they are members of opposition or banned political parties. According to the Comision Chi- lena de Derechos Humanos J a group made up mostly of lawyers who work to protect and promote human rights, more than 31,000 people were detained for political reasons in November and December 1984: 28,459 in November and 3,417 in December. During those two months states of danger, emergency, and siege were in effect simultaneously. Most of those 7
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8 detained were picked up during raids on shantytowns by members of the security forces, usually Carabi- neros (the armed, uniformed, national police force that also deals with civil disturbances and na- tional emergencies), and held in t~mnorarv d~n- -; ~ ,.~; ~ ~ ~ ~ A ~ fill Wall L- In general' the detentions were arbitrary, carried out without warrants, and often violent. The delegates were told by human rights groups that temporary detentions are be- lieved to be carried out in an effort to intimidate people in opposition to the government. Also in the last months of 1984, more than 700 people were banished. piled by the Vicars de la Solidaridad, a highly respected group that is active in human rights work and run by the Catholic church, 733 people were banished in 1984s 136 of them in October, 426 in November, and 139 in December. Transitory Articles 24 and 41 are applicable in cases of banishment. They are both for 90 days but under Article 41 ban- ishment can be, and sometimes is, extended. All of those colleagues about whom the committee specifi- cally inquired had been banished under the somewhat less severe Article 24. According to reports, most of the people who were banished were first detained and then put on buses and transported long distances (500 miles or more) from their homes to small towns or villages-- without charges or access to legal representation and often without their families' being told where they were being taken. There was no trial or right to appeal to an independent court. In the villages, According to statistics com although some people were able to find work, most were dependent on the church or the local villagers for feed m1 ash; nor aced He ~ , ~ A, ~ ~_~. In most cases the relegados were restricted to the village and required to report regularly, usually twice a day, to the local police. They were generally allowed to meet with certain visitors, to receive mail and money, and to make telephone calls. However, in Pisagua, a remote, heavily militarized rural local- ity (localidad rural ~ some 1,185 miles north of Santiago, the treatment and conditions of
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9 reported severe than for those sent to other towns and villages. Pisagua was closed to all but a few visitors. Estimates received by the delegates reveal that between 400 and 500 people were being held in Pisagua at the time of the delegation's visit' 39 of those exiled to Pisagua were reported to have been released during that time--on March 19, 1985. The delegates expressed serious concern to every- one they met about banishment for political reasons. They specifically requested information on six col- leagues who had been banished in November and Decem- ber 1984. (A seventh person for whom the committee had previously made inquiries, Fanny Pollarolo, a psychologist, was released several days before the confinement of exiles were to be much more arrival of the delegation. On March 19, the delegates met with Leonidas Irarrazaval Barros of the Council of Advisers to the Foreign Minister, Ambassador Mario Calderone, and Enrique Carvallo Diaz. Irarrazaval said that "exceptional measures" had been taken and that the individuals about whom the committee had made inquiries had been freed. While he was not able to provide the dates on which they had been freed, over the course of the next few days human rights organizations gave the delegates the release dates of those who had already been freed and the expected release dates of those still believed to be in internal exile. Individual Cases As mentioned above, prior to the departure of the delegation to Chile, the committee sent the Chilean authorities the names of a number of colleagues who had reportedly been banished to internal exile. According to the committee's information, these people--fellow scientists, engineers, and medical professionals--had been banished for the nonviolent expression of their beliefs. The list included Juan Restelli Portuguez, a physician, Douglas Fuenteseca, a mathematician' Ricardo Fuentes Romero, an
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10 engineer' Armando Guerra Cano, an engineer' Jaime Perez de Arc Araya, an economist' and Pablo Venegas Cancino, a psychiatrist. Once in Chile, the dele- gation also learned of the banishment of Ricardo Godoy, a physician. On March 20, the delegation attended a three- hour meeting at the offices of the Colegio Medico de Chile, an independent professional association of physicians. The meeting was attended by the officers of the association and was chaired by its president, Juan Luis Gonzalez. During the meeting the delegates were introduced to Dr. Juan Restelli Portuguez and Dr. Ricardo Godoy--who had just been released from internal exile. Their cases are described in this report in detail because the delegates were able to talk directly with them about the circumstances of their arrests and periods of banishment. The other cases summarized in this section contain what limited information the dele- gates were able to obtain from secondary sources during the course of their mission. Juan Restelli Portuguez, Physician Dr. Restelli is a general practitioner in private practice in Arica and is a member of the Comision Nacional Contra la Tortura and the Comision Chilena de Derechos Humanos of Arica. (Arica is about 1,270 miles north of Santiago on the Peruvian border in one of the driest areas in the world.) A private organization, the Comision Chilena de Derechos IIumanos campaigns against violations of human rights, including torture, arranges treatment for torture victims, and takes legal action on their behalf. Dr. Restelli also assists various social organizations by providing medical care to those banished to Arica by the government. ing with the delegation, Dr. Restelli At the meet- described his period of banishment and his human rights activities prior to his arrest' he said that it was important that others know about his experiences and the general situation in Chile.
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11 According to Dr. Restelli, sion in Arica intensified in 1983. Governmental repres In August 1983, he examined and provided medical assistance to four trade union leaders who were seriously tortured while held in solitary confinement by the Central Nacional de Informaciones (CNI), Chile's secret police.3 He said that the examination of these torture victims was the most dreadful experience in his life and that since then he has worked in de- fense of human rights. Dr. Restelli said that, at the request of the chief justice of the court of appeals of Arica, he prepared a medical report on the four victims. (According to Dr. Restelli, these four people are still in jail in Arica under false charges, and no action is known to have been taken on the report of torture.) Subsequent to presenting the report, he said he began having problems with government se- curity agents. He was followed by CNI agents, and in February 1984 his car was fire-bombed. Although the Comision Chilena de Derechos Humanos brought Dr. Restelli's case to the local courts, no inves- tigation has been undertaken, and no arrests have been made. Because the local press in Arica re- portedly refused--either out of fear or censor- ship--to publish Dr. Restelli's statement about the incident, the Consejo Regional de Arica (Regional Council of Arica) of the Colegio Medico de Chile decided to "break through the barrier of silence"s the office printed a pamphlet describing the inci- dent, which was distributed on the streets and left in doctors' offices. Dr. Restelli was elected president of the Arica branch of the Comision Chilena de Derechos Humanos on January 4, 1984. On December 23, 1984, four CNI agents detained him at his home and subsequently transported him to the south of the country along with 16 other people--mostly professionals and leaders of union organizations. He was banished, along with two other people, to the town of Porte- zuelo, about 1,535 miles south of his home. Dr. Restelli said that the treatment he received was better than that received by others and that he and
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12 his medical colleagues were able to work in their professions and were allowed visitors without any restrictions. Dr. Restelli also said that he very much appreciated the hundreds of letters of support he received from medical colleagues around the world as a result of efforts made by the Colegio Medico de Chile. During his banishment, Dr. Restelli informed the Colegio Medico that he had decided not to appeal for a reduced sentence because no charges had been brought against him and he felt that he had done nothing wrong. He said that his work had been legal and that he had defended individual, fundamental rights. Dr. Restelli was released on March 19, 1985, after spending 87 days in internal exile. His meeting with the committee delegation took place two days after his release. In late April the committee's delegates received reports that Dr. Restelli and several other people who had been banished with him had received a threatening letter from a group calling itself the "Comando Anti-Comunista." This was not the first tome that Dr. Restelli had received threats. The latest threat was a single sheet of paper with a cross, red spatters resembling drops of blood, and a red check-mark next to Dr. Restelli's name (see Appendix D). This provocation was particularly alarming in view of the kidnapping and murder, by armed men in civilian clothes, of a human rights worker and two other people at the end of March in Santiago.4 According to an article in the local Arica newspaper, La Estrella de Arica, on April 9, 1985, entitled "Once Dirigentes Amenazados de Muerte" ("Eleven Opposition Leaders Threatened with Death"), a formal request for protection that was presented to the local court of justice was ac- cepted, and Dr. Restelli and others were subse- quently placed under the protection of the Carab~- neros. The committee's delegates wrote to Chile's interior minister, Ricardo Garcia Rodriguez, to ex- press their concern about the threatening letter and to request that protection for Do. Restelli be assured. In response, Garcia wrote: "With respect
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13 to your inquiry about the situation of Dr. Juan Restelli Portuguez, I can tell you that he enjoys full freedoms and is afforded due personal protec- tion, as stipulated in an order from the courts." Ricardo Godoy, Physician Dr. Ricardo Godoy, a surgeon from Arica, is the secretary of the Consejo Regional de Arica (Re- gional Council of Arica) of the Colegio Medico de Chile. He told the delegation that following a public appeal in December 1984 for a prompt return to democracy in Chile, in which he and others par- ticipated, 16 people from Arica, mostly profession- als, were detained under Transitory Article 24. Dr. Godoy was arrested the following day and taken by security forces to Santiago along with a profes- sor and a lawyer, where the group was joined by the others from Arica who had been arrested. They were locked in cells, and all of their personal belong- ings were taken. The following day they were taken by bus to the city of Chillan, about 1,520 miles south of Arica, and then sent by the authorities in groups of twos and threes to rural communities around the city. Dr. Godoy was sent to the nearby town of Ninhue. No reason was given for his banishment. The following excerpts are from Dr. Godoy's re- port of his stay in exile. They were taken from a report of the delegation's meeting that was written and translated into English by the Colegio Medico de Chile: The villagers and the parish priest, who pro- vided all forms of assistance, accepted us ra- ther kindly. Since the inhabitants are tremely poor I immediately began to provide medical assistance. A clinic was set up in the rectory. We had some drugs sent by the Regional Council of the Colegio Medico de Concepcion. In addition, we had a large number of drugs from Germany which had been donated to the parish by ex ·
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14 church organizations and which had not been used since there were no doctors who could prescribe them. We were able to translate them and prescribe them. I was later joined by my wife and small daughters, who were sent by the Regional Council of Arica of the Colegio Medico. I also received economic assistance from my colleagues, since my salary had been withheld. we were constantly being visited he r~n'= ~ ~ _ _= _ _ sentat~ves ot several professional associa- tions. They included, of course, doctors, attorneys, teachers, church organizations from the Accion Fraterna of the Archbishops See, the Commission on Human Rights, different labor unions, and many outstanding public figures, including humble farmers. This made us feel less lonely. , , According to Dr. Godoy, the Colegio Medico con- tacted the minister of the interior and requested that Dr. Godoy be released so that he could under- go needed surgery. As a result, he was released one month before the end of his 90-day term. Dr. Godoy told the delegates that the other banished professionals had just been released' they were freed several days before the expiration of their terms. Dougl as Fuenteseca, Mathematician Douglas Fuenteseca was an instructor of mathematics at the University of Antofagasta and a member of . . . . . the university senate when he was detained and banished in 1984. According to members of the Chilean mathematical society, Fuenteseca collected money and established a fund to pay for the students' breakfasts after the dining hall at the university was closed following a student strike. Shortly thereafter, on November 30, 1984, he was detained by security forces and disappeared for several days. Subsequently, he was reported to
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15 have been handcuffed and blindfolded in detention until December 4, when he was banished to the village of Catapilco, some 650 miles south of his home. During Fuenteseca's exile, the president of the Sociedad de Matematica de Chile (Chilean Mathema- tics Society), Rolando Rebolledo, traveled to Cata- pilco to visit Fuenteseca and to deliver greetings to him from the society's members. On December 29, 1984, the Sociedad de Matematica held a mathematics conference in Catapilco to demonstrate support for Fuenteseca. His colleagues said they found good health and spirits, although, while in it; an . Fuenteseca was forced to sign and put ~ ~ i,, ~_, ^ ~ hem In deten- his fingerprint on a "confession" while blindfolded. The Sociedad de Matematica set up a fund to provide Fuenteseca with financial support during his exile, - and its members reported having received numerous letters of support for their activities in behalf of Fuenteseca from groups such as the Societe Mathematique de France, the American Mathematical Society, the International Mathematical Union, and the Federacion Latinoamericana de Matematicas. Fuenteseca was released on March 10, 1985. Ricardo Fuentes Romero, Engineer Ricardo Fuentes Rome ro was reportedly arrested in Arica by plainclothes policemen on December 23, 1984, and transferred the same day to Santiago. He was subsequently banished without charges or trial to the town of E1 Carmen, about 1,540 miles south of Arica. According to information obtained by the delegates, Fuentes was expected to be released from banishment on March 26, 1985. - Ada Cam Casti llo and Manuel Ala rcon Valdi vJa, Mathematicians In early December 1985 the committee sent telegrams to the Chilean authorities requesting information on
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16 the status, whereabouts, and physical well-being of these two mathematicians who were picked up on November 29, 1984, and disappeared for several days. Both were mathematics instructors at the University of Antofagasta. According to informa- tion received by the delegation from members of the Chilean Mathematics Society, Cam and Alarcon were handcuffed and blindfolded and held in detention for seven days. They were released on December 7, 1984. Armando Guerra Cano, Engineer Armando Guerra Cano was arrested on November 24, 1984, in Arica. He was subsequently banished with- out trial or charges to the city of Panguipulli, some 1,760 miles to the south. The delegates learned that he had been freed, but the date of his release is not known. Jaime Perez de Arc Araya, Economi st CNI agents reportedly arrested Jaime Perez de Arc Araya in Santiago on December 13, 1984, and took him to a CNI detention center. Six days later--on December 19--he was banished to the city of Quilaco, about 340 miles south of Santiago. He was expected to be released from banishment on March 24, 1985. Pabl o Venegas Cancino, Psychiatrist Plainclothes policemen arrested Pablo Venegas Cancino on November 27, 1984, during a demon- stration. His home was searched, and he was allegedly tortured while in detention. Although the committee had been under the impression that Dr. Venegas had been banished, the delegation learned that, following interrogation, he was released on November 30, 1984.
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17 EXILE The subject of Chilean colleagues living outside the country in forced exile was brought to the attention of the delegates during meetings with professional and scientific groups. President Pinochet can keep Chileans from returning to the country on the grounds that they "constitute a danger to the security of the State." The dele gates were told that, since 1983, the number of people forcibly exiled has been reduced from an estimated 11,000 people to between 4,500 and 5,500 people in early 1985. are now allowed to return to the Been ~ TV renortediv Under a state of emergency, However, many of those who ~ ,~ _ _ ~ experience difficulties finding suitable jobs. According to information from the Colegio Medico de Chile, 360 Chilean physicians are now living outside the country. This number includes those exiled by the government of President Pinochet, those who are living abroad voluntarily, and those who left Chile as students and obtained their degrees while abroad. Of the more than 100 physi- cians who were forced to leave Chile, the colegio reported that in November 1984 the minister of the interior sent them a list of about 50 who would no longer be prevented from returning to Chile. Of the 100 physicians who were forced to leave, 65 approached the colegio for assistance in obtaining permission to return to Chile. The 30 physicians listed below are among those who reportedly have not been permitted to return to Chile, despite the efforts of the colegio. Name Registration No. Barberis Yori, Victor Barcelo Amado, Nelly Patricia Behm Rosas, Hugo Carrera Villavicencio, Maria Elena Cerda Catalan, Moises Cid Palacios, Patricia Condeza Vaccaro, Edgardo 3779 7906 417 4122 2454 7094 6089
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26 Cases of people who are arrested by mistake and tortured are reported to be the most difficult. Those people who know they were tortured for their beliefs, or for other reasons, are usually better able to cope. In 1984, FASIC's staff treated 147 victims of torture and 35 members of their families. The FASIC staff told the delegates that, under Chilean law, detainees are required to be exam- ined by a physician both before and after detention. Consequently, upon release, a physician may falsely report that a detainee bears no signs of torture. In addition, before release, some prisoners have been required to sign statements indicating that they were not tortured while in detention. According to FASIC, torture increased in Chile after the declaration of the state of siege in No- vember 1984. Actions by the military became more violent and brutal, particularly in the slum where mass demonstrations against the government were taking place. During the demonstrations, se- lected individuals were often tortured intensively for a few days, to create a sense of panic, fear, and intimidation within the general population. Staff members at the Vicars de la Solidaridad and FASIC told the delegates that while in the mid-1970s torture was usually attributed to the se- cret police, it is now practiced by all branches of the security forces. areas, Collaboration of Medical Pry; nor] ~ in Torture In Dr. Gonzalez's testimony before the U.S. Con- gress (see note 6), he said that "in accordance with Chilean law, anyone who is arrested or jailed must be examined by a physician when entering and leaving detention . . . . Nevertheless, we know that there are physicians who certify the physical condition of persons arrested in secret places without examining them at all, very superficial examination." or performing only a He went on to say:
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27 These health certifications have been used for different purposes, especially to give torture and arrest in secret places the appearance of legal processes, and, what is worse, to certify in some cases the degree of torture an arrested person can withstand. Written certifications are routine, he said, and often the signatures of the examining physicians are illegible, making it impossible to know which physician signed the certificates. In other cases, he said, "some physicians have suffered retaliation after denouncing or certifying acts of torture." At the meeting held with members of the Colegio Medico, the delegates specifically requested in- formation on reports of the involvement of medical professionals in torture. They were told that in 1983, when the Colegio Medico reviewed and amended its code of ethics, two provisions dealing with torture were included. This was done, according to Dr. Carlos Trejo, president of the Ethics Depart- ment of the General Council, to establish clear and positive rules for physicians. Patricio Figueroa, the colegio's attorney, pointed out that the two provisions against torture--Articles 5 and 25--were included because of the colegio's concern about "the increase in the use of torture and other ill- treatment and because of charges that doctors were :___~_.~= 't 1~ ~r~r`=nr];Y F:, Involves . . . `~= ^~c~ ~ J . Dr. Trejo said that the code of ethics "was given wide circulation and that the colegio has held meetings on ethics and encouraged members to write papers on ethics issues." Dr. Trejo also pointed out that there had been "a clear absence of teaching on such matters in . . . academic work." March 1985 the Colegio Medico issued guide- that describe conditions under which physi- should not attend to patients: (1) if the physician has been ordered not to identify himself or to obstruct his identity by physical means, (2) if the physician encounters a patient who is In lines clans .
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28 blindfolded seeing the , hooded, or otherwise prevented from examining physician' (3) if the patient is held in a secret detention center or has been brought from such a center, and (4) if contact between the patient and physician can only be carried out in the presence of a third party. Dr. Trejo said that shortly after the all; ~1 ; n== Or releases/ a member of the ethics committee received a call from the director of a military hospital who requested that the committee support his efforts protest an order that hospital staff attend to vic- tims of torture and mistreatment under conditions that are proscribed in the new guidelines. This request is seen as a measure of the actual and potential value of these new guidelines. The colegio has so far investigated five physi- cians alleged to have participated in the abuse of political detainees. Dr. Villegas, the colegio's general counsel, explained to the delegates that the purpose of such investigations is twofold: establish the truth and to punish those who are guilty. He said that "the aim is to put a stop to torture in Chile, as torture is something that exists because an entire society condones it." Dr. Villegas said that torture is condoned for a vari- ety of reasons: societies lack the strength to end it, a large sector of society ignores it, or tor- ture is attributed to psychopaths. Dr. Villegas also emphasized the importance of reconciliation. All accused physicians must agree to be investigated by the colegio. The investiga- tions are conducted in secret in order that the ren- utations of innocent physicians are not harmed. Physicians who are found guilty are permitted to return to the ranks of their colleagues after having been punished. Measures taken by the cole- gio against those physicians found guilty can in- clude an oral rebuke, a written reprimand, one yearns suspension from the colegio, and expulsion. Because the colegio has no official power to moni- tor ethical abuses, expulsion from the colegio is the maximum penalty it is able to apply.9 _ to to · . -
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29 Of the five cases so far investigated by the co- legio, one has been concluded. The principal army physician in the Lautaro de Rancagua regiment, Dr. Carlos Hernan Perez Castro, was suspended for a year from the colegio for his role in certifying that Maria de Los Angeles Sanhueza Ruin, who had been interrogated in March 1982, was in good physi- cal condition upon release from a secret detention center when, in fact, she had been tortured. The colegio is expected to rule on the cases of the four other accused physicians later this year. According to Dr. Gonzalez, as many as 30 to 40 physicians may have been implicated in the abuse of political detainees during the past ten years. The case of Dr. Perez was brought to the Colegio Medico by Maria Sanhueza in 1983. Sanhueza alleged that Dr. Perez had given her a cursory physical examination following torture and certified that she was in good physical condition.l° She said that during her five days of incommunicado deten- tion she was blindfolded, physically beaten, burned with a cigarette, and subjected to electric shocks. In sworn testimony before the colegio's ethics com- mittee, a physician from the Vicars who examined Sanhueza a week after her release confirmed that she had a visible cigarette burn on her face and that she showed signs of having been beaten on the ears, for which she received treatment from a specialist. Dr. Trejo said that the most important event with regard to the written or documentary evidence produced by the colegio was an invitation to pre- sent the colegio's ethical position on the problem of torture to the House of Representatives of the United States in May 1984. He said that this tes- timony gave rise to subsequent invitations to mem- bers of the colegio to speak on torture at the First Ibero-American Congress on Human Rights in Zaragoza, Spain, by invitation from the government of France' and to Pope John Paul II in Rome. Dr. Amador Neghme, president of the Academia Chilena de Medicina (Chilean Academy of Medicine),
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30 told the delegates that the members of the Academia Chilena de Medicina fully support the Colegio Medi- co's efforts to prevent professional complicity in torture and that they disagree with the govern- ment's decision that revoked the legal authority of the colegio to certify physicians to practice medi- cine in Chile. Dr. Neghme said that this authority was revoked because the government did not want such power in the hands of institutions over which it had no formal control. Dr. Neghme said that the Colegio Medico has, nevertheless, maintained its moral authority and that between 80 and 85 percent of the country's young physicians still register with the colegio even though they are not required to do so. DESAPARECIDOS--DISAPPEARED PEOPLE The Committee on Human Rights has been concerned for a number of years about the disappearances of 24 scientists in Chile. According to the Vicaria, more than 600 people disappeared between 1973 and 1978' many are believed to have died as a result of torture or extrajudicial execution while in offi- cial custody. In 1979 the Supreme Court of Chile appointed special judges to investigate the unre- solved cases of the disappeared' to date, no one has been indicted. The committee's delegates sub- mitted the names of disappeared scientists to the Chilean authorities and requested information re- garding their whereabouts and legal situation (see Appendix A). Although no information has been received to date from the Chilean authorities regarding the status of these scientists, human rights groups were able to supplement the information previously obtained by the committee. According to the Vica- ria de la Solidaridad, Alvarez Santibanez, a chem- ist, was detained by the Carabineros on August 15, 1979. The committee was under the impression that he had disappeared, but the delegates were told that he had died, reportedly as a result of torture, on
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31 August 21, 1979. The Vicaria also informed the delegation that Dr. Carlos Lorca Tobar, a psychi- atrist whose status was unknown to the committee, disappeared on June 25, 1975. In addition, the Vicaria provided the delegates with names and background of several scientists whose cases were not known previously to the committee. The delegates also purchased volumes 2 through 7 of a publication by the Vicaria de la Solidaridad of the Arzobispado de Santiago (Vicariate of Soli- darity of the Archdiocese of Santiago) entitled cDond e Estan ? (Where Are They'd. These books nrovi~ Retailed documentation on 478 cases of = ~ people, many of whom were political dissidents, who disappeared in Chile between 1973 and 1977, often while in the custody of a-tents of the government security forces. (Volume 1 is out of print, and volumes 8 and 9 have not yet been published.) Most of the cases were brought to the attention of the Vicaria by the family members of the disappeared' case details were obtained through interviews with witnesses and family members. In most cases, some legal or administrative action was taken either by the family or the Vicaria. These volumes were pre- sented by Cardinal Raul Silva Henr~quez to the minister of the interior. INFRINGEMENTS ON ACADEMIC FREEDOM Traditionally, Chile's universities have been self-governing, but when General Pinochet came to power most were placed under military control. Ac- tive and retired military officers were appointed The delegates encountered considerable discontent among scientific colleagues about in- fringements on academic freedom at the univer- sities. The specific problems mentioned included a lack of academic autonomy' restrictions on academic curriculum for ideological and political reasons, selection of university administrators on the basis of political allegiance rather than academic and professional qualifications' a view among university as rectors.
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32 administrators that a university is a commercial enterprise' awarding scholarships to students on political grounds' and the hiring and firing of academics for political reasons. With regard to the dismissal of academics for political reasons, the general Impression given the delegates was that many people were dismissed from their jobs in the mid-1970s--most for political reasons, some for academic reasons, and others for budgetary reasons. Dismissals appeared to be more prevalent in economics and the other social sci- ences, philosophy, and fine arts than in other disciplines. It is estimated that immediately following the 1973 coup, about 30 percent of the faculties of Chile's universities were summarily dismissed from their posts for political reasons. Most of the dismissals made since then appear to fall into "grey areas"s i.e., it is not clear whether they were done for political reasons, for budgetary reasons, or for academic reasons. How- ever, a number of highly qualified scientists, whose views do not coincide with those of the present government, have reportedly been barred from university positions. According to the January-February 1985 bulletin of the Academia de Humanismo Cristiano (Academy of Christian Humanism), for various reasons "some one hundred functionaries--among them teachers, admin- istrators, and professionals--were dismissed from the Universidad de Chile . . . . Communications announcing their dismissals began to arrive yester- day [January 4, 1985] to those affected [dis- missed]." The bulletin went on to say that "those dismissed are people from the Tower 15 (central administration), legal administration, and from the departments of Medicine, Economic Sciences, Basic Sciences, Philosophy, Humanities and the Main Building (La Tercera, 5.1.85~." The delegates were told by Maximo Pacheco, vice president of the nongovernmental Chilean Commission on Human Rights and a former dean of the Law School at the University of Chile, that 80 percent of the law professors at the University of Chile were
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33 dismissed during the two-year period following the coup. At a meeting arranged by the Chilean Foreign Ministry, Carlos Martinez Sotomayor, the minister of foreign affairs in 1962-1963 under the Alessandri government, expressed to the delegates his concerns tear, win the University of Chile, there exists a "clear discrimination against the country's long- standing cultural and democratic traditions" that will have serious implications for future gener- ations. He said that courses on political inter- national relations, laws for minors, criminology, and aeronautical law have been eliminated, although a course in international public and private law has been maintained. Sotomayor said he was very con- cerned that students now learn only the legal and judicial aspects of law, not general studies or history. Sotomayor suggested that U.S. universities that had cooperative agreements with Chilean univer . . . , ~. . sities, such as those that existed between the Uni- versity of Chile and the University of California, be reactivated or given additional support. He said that in this wav omen discussions could perhaps be held again within the universities in Chile. At a meeting with members of CIEPLAN, a private nonprofit economic research institute, the dele- gates were told that most of its members had worked at the Pont~fica Universidad Catolica de Chile but decided to leave and do independent research be- cause of the lack of academic freedom. At the Universidad Catolica, the rector, Juan de Dios Vial Correa, told the delegates that there had been no dismissals of members of the teaching staff since the declaration of the most recent state of siege. He said that labor laws in Chile do not allow for dismissals. Vial, a highly respected biologist who is one of t'ne few nonmilitary rectors of a university in Chile, had just been appointed to his position, reportedly as a result of pressure on the Chilean government from the Catholic church. At the Escuela de Negocios de Valparaiso (Busi- ness School of Valpara~so), which is affiliated with the Universidad Federico Santa Maria but is located in Santiago, Carlos Caceres, the director
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34 of the school and former minister of finance under President Pinochet, told the delegates that there had been no difficulties in running the school, either politically or economically. The school is a private institution that does not receive funding from the government. Caceres said that he did not know of any professors at the University of Santa Maria who had been fired since 1983, but in the first few years following the coup many had lost their jobs for political reasons. He said that in the last ten years some economists at the Universi- dad de Chile had had various problems. The dele- gates learned later from other sources that these problems were generally associated with allegiance to a particular approach to economics not espoused by the government. The rector of the Universidad de Chile, Briga- dier General Roberto Soto MacKenney, told the dele- gates that the university has a system by which no one can be dismissed without the right of appeal within the university. He said that during the last two years, since he became rector, no one had been expelled from the university for academic or nonacademic reasons, if they had kept up their aca demic activities. The delegates were told by reliable sources that at the University of Santiago the mathematics department had 12 people with Ph.D.s four years ago and that now only 2 are left. At a meeting with the director of the National Institute of Nutrition, Fernando Monckeberg, and his staff, the delegates were told that only one person had been fired, presumably for political reasons, and that that person was brought back by efforts of the staff. The delegates were told, however, that those in the field of health care had been less affected by political changes than those in the social sciences. The delegates made inquiries of several groups about a number of specific cases involving scienti- fic colleagues who had been dismissed from their posts in recent months. The information they re- ceived is summarized below.
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35 Rubi Rodr ~ Suez Moreno Rubi Rodriguez Moreno is a mathematician who received a master's degree (1975) in mathematics from Universidad Tecnica del Estado, now the Univer- sidad de Santiago, and an M.A. (1977) and then a Ph.D. (1981) from Columbia University in New York City. She was dismissed from her position as professor of mathematics at the Universidad de Santiago, without explanation but presumably for political reasons, in January 1985.12 Ada Cam Castillo Ada Cam Castillo is a mathematician who received a master's degree (1980) from the Universidad Tecnica del Estado. She was reportedly dismissed from her position as instructor of mathematics at the Univer- sidad de Antofagasta in November 1984 at the time of her arrest (see above, "Individual Cases". Manuel Alarcon Valdi v, a Manuel Ala rcon Valdiv~a is a mathematician who re- ceived a master's degree (1980) from the Universi- dad Tecnica del Estado. He was reportedly fired from his position as instructor of mathematics at the Universidad de Antofagasta in November 1984 at the time of his arrest (see above, "Individual Cases". Douglas Fuenteseca Douglas Fuenteseca is a mathematician who received a master's degree (1973) in mathematics from the Universidad Tecnica del Estado and another master's degree (1982) in statistics from Centro Interameri- cano de Ensenanza de Estad~stica - CIENES (Inter- American Statistics Teaching Center). Fuenteseca was reportedly dismissed from his position as
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36 instructor of mathematics at the Universidad de Antofagasta in November 1984 at the time of his arrest (see above, "Individual Cases"~.
Representative terms from entire chapter: