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33 services, we will be able to avoid or minimize those tendencies that put psychiatric diagnosis and treatment in the service of ideological and political goals. Clearly, Dr. Anatoly Koryagin has been committed to the sep- aration of clinical science and ideological processes. We applaud, admire, and seek to emulate his courage and steadfast search for truth. COMMENTS M. Aliked Eaynes Professor Debreu, colleagues, and friends. To discuss ethics and ethical principles is an important intellectual exercise, but to see ethics personified in the form of Dr. Gonzalez and the other special guests whom we have here today is a very sobering experience. Health professionals are, by the very nature of their profession, likely to have a broader role in the arena of human rights than most other professionals. Recognition of this broader role has been a matter of careful consideration by the Institute of Medicine. Physicians may be victimized without any regard to the practice of their profession. They are incidentally caught in the practice of torture and repression, and they deserve the consideration and concern of all persons who are unjustly treated. In the second case, physicians may be victimized because they are performing their professional duties in accordance with a well-defined code of ethics under which we operate. This code is very clear with respect to what physicians should do. But some physicians have been victimized because they acted in accordance with these principles. They deserve our very special consideration. In the third case, physicians may actuary be in collusion with those who violate human rights. When, for example, as we have just heard, psychiatrists who have a special power to commit persons to mental hospitals allow their professional skills to be used for the purposes of illegally committing dissidents, this is an outrageous abuse of psychiatry and deserves our condemnation. The fourth category includes the nonparticipant observers. have chosen to define the nonparticipant observers as those health persons who, in the course of their duties, see the results of torture but refuse to keep silent. The case of Wendy Orr is a fine example. This young, white South African physician was assigned to treat