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Part 2 Human Rights, Human Needs, and Scientific Freedom INTRODUCTION Gilbert White The definition of torture, the identification of malpractice, and the suggestion of means, both individual and social, to cope with it is a complex process. In some sense, however, it is much easier to handle than other aspects of human rights violations. We turn now to concepts of human rights, civil and political rights, and how these are related to social and political and eco- nomic rights and needs. To do this, we intend to begin by exposing the situation in one country South Africa-which has been very much in our minds in recent years, as an arena in which there has been systematic discrimination against the great proportion of the population. Having heard from someone who has lived through this experi- ence of apartheid and has, himself, been a vigorous worker to bring about its modification, we will then hear from two active participants in the advancement of human rights at home and overseas. Professor Ismai! Mohamed is a member of one of those three groups in South Africa that account for 80 percent of the population, "colored," ~black," and "Asian." He was born in the community of the East Cape. He was, ~ believe, the first person from the colored ranks to attain the status of a lectureship in the University of Wit- watersrand and probably the first mathematician in any university in South Africa. He has maintained that status since, in a country in 39