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yet ~ do think that severe repression (and we have heard it) is not just imprisonment, is not just torture, is not just internal exile, is not just disappearance, but is also the fact that you do not have the opportunity to learn. ~ am a physicist and therefore not really qualified to speak about that, but to me, the human curiosity, if not satisfied, is a very basic neglected human need. So, ~ think if you ask this question, you have to ask yourself, have we, as a scientific community, spent enough effort in understanding its importance? These are days in which we have been overjoyed that Professor Sakharov is back in Moscow. We should not forget that he wrote, in 1968, a book that is not read as much as it deserves to be. In Progress, Coexistence, and Intellectual Freediom, he says: "Intellectual freedom is essential to human society, freedom to obtain and distribute information, freedom for openminded and unfearing debate, and freedom from pressure by officialdom and prejudices." There are some political overtones in that statement. (Laughter) But, basically, it addresses the issue. Only a short five years ago, Sakharov said something about the worldwide character of the scientific community assuming particular importance when dealing with problems of human rights. "By its international defense of persecuted scientists, of all people whose rights have been violated, the scientific community confirms its international mandate, which is so essential for successful scientific work and for service to society. Well, our scientific societies, be they national ones or be they international ones, come in contact with these issues all the time and especially at the present time the International Council of Scientific Unions is trying to come to some formulation that will take into account some of the things that Professor Mohamed has mentioned. So, ~ am saying nothing new to you; ~ have a message that is much less polemical, perhaps, but ~ hope that it fits in with what my two colleagues have to say. Thank you. COMMENTS [ipman Bers The human rights movement is sometimes accused of taking a parochial, purely "Western" approach, stressing "politically rights, like freedom of speech or freedom from arbitrary arrest and from