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projects, but make sure that the best and most productive people in the USSR are allowed to participate irrespective of their race, religion, or political inclination. But we should not insist upon hu- man rights unprovements as a condition for more peaceful relations. Thank you. COMMENTS Paul Doty First, ~ would like to congratulate Yuri OrIov on his paper. His perception, analysis, and thoughtful suggestions for the future, all delivered without, despite what he has been through, any rancor, are a tribute to him and to all of his breed, and ~ appreciate it very much. oecona, ~ am In a somewhat delicate position because, as 1 told Dr. Stellar when he invited me to come, I could not pass as a human rights activist, although I share their concerns and their goals. Instead, ~ think ~ am here to represent the several dozen members of the academy who, over the years, have pursued a somewhat parallel, but much less dramatic and much less heroic and much safer, course, personally, of trying to bring about a bridge between the scientists in the Soviet Union and those here and to explore in all the ways that we could between the two sides of finding a safer world ahead, depending less and less for our security upon the enormous stockpiles of weapons that we have assembled. This has taken the form within the academy of two different programs. In 1959, President Bronk initiated the exchange of scien- tists with the Soviet academy; in 1960 ~ became the first chair of the committee overseeing that program and carried on for several years. It has been a continuous operation and now bears the name of the Soviet-East European Affairs Program. Over its 27 years or so, it has been handmaiden to the exchange of several thousand scientists each way. It is not possible to evaluate how much good that has done, but it created a net pool of shared interests and knowledge of each other that ~ think cannot but be helpful in the days and years ahead. The second operation is that of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control, of which those of you who come hear words from us on the Sunday before each annual meeting. That committee, which began in 1980, had its origins in 1960 or before,