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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Committee on Human Rights Science and Human Rights Carol Corillon, Editor NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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NOTICE: This volume has been reviewed by a group other than the participants. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the author- ity of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The Committee on Human Rights is a committee of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its admin- istration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the Na- tional Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering prograrrls aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of ap- propriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The production and publication of this report was made possi- ble by a grant from the Richard Lounsbery Foundation and funds provided by the National Academy of Sciences. Available from: Committee on Human Rights National Academy of Sciences 2 101 Constitution Avenue N. W. Washington, D.C. 20418

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Committee on Human Righis 198~87 ELIOT STELLAR (Chair), Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Pennsylvania GERARD DEBREU, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley DANIEL C. DRUCKER, Engineering Sciences Department, University of Florida GERTRUDE S. GOLDHABER, Department of Physics, Brookhaven National I,aboratory, Upton, New York M. ALFRED HAYNES, Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School, Los Angeles MARY ELLEN ~JONES, Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ROBERT S. LAWRENCE, Division of Primary Care, Harvard Medical School FRANCIS LOW, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DANIEL NATHANS, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University DONALD S. ORNSTEIN, Department of Mathematics, Stanford University PETER H. RAVEN, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis WILLIAM SLIGHTER, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired), Murray Hill, New Jersey GILBERT F. WHITE, Institute of Behavorial Science, University of Colorado ADAM YARMOLINSKY, Provost, University of Maryland Baltimore County CAROL CORILLON, Director - ~ 111 1,

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