cations (totaling 8.5 mtce), then wind energy (6 mtce), ocean energy (5 mtce), and solar PV and geothermal (each at 2.5 mtce).
The Chinese State Science and Technology Commission-DOE 1995 Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and its six annexes provide a number of opportunities for collaboration in solar, biomass, wind, hybrid systems, geothermal, electric vehicles, and so on. In 1998, U.S. funding for the program increased to about $1 million, compared to $400,000-$600,000 in previous years.
As part of the Energy and Environment Cooperation Initiative noted earlier, part of a now $100 million loan program at the U.S. Export-Import Bank has been earmarked for U.S. companies interested in developing renewable energy projects in China (other projects eligible under this program include energy efficiency and small-scale clean coal projects).19
Other ongoing efforts in renewable energy include:
World Bank/Global Environment Facility demonstration of wind (~290 MW) and solar power systems, under way since 1996 and funded at over $400 million;
U.S. DOE-Chinese Ministry of Agriculture: biomass cooperation under way since 1996;
Energy Research Institute-National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaboration: under the Renewable Energy Protocol, Annex 1 (Center for Renewable Energy Development);
UNDP/GEF renewable energy project of over $25 million half the funding of which is designed for pilot projects in biogas, bagasse, and hybrid village power, the other half of which is for technical assistance, training, codes, standards, resource assessment in solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass; and
Asian Development Bank funding prefeasibilty studies and assessments in biogas and wind at about $1 million.
In addition to ongoing collaboration with the United States, China also is receiving bilateral assistance in renewable energy technologies from Denmark, Holland, Germany, Spain, and Japan. Australia and Spain are also co-donors to the UNDP project.