PAPERBACK
\$29.00

## Energy Conversion

### ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

 From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule EJ 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2] Btce 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3] Btoe 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4] Tcm NG 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 Quadrillion Btu Quad 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000 [1] These factors are as per footnote 1 on p. 2, and follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. Chinese average raw coal contains 20.93 GJ/metric ton (low heat), or 22.51 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for coal are 93% of high-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce), a unit that bears little relation to the heating value of coals actually in use in China. One tce equal 29.31 GJ (low heat) equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/ t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001