From one: |
To: |
EJ |
Btce |
Btoe |
Tcm NG |
Quad |
Exajoule |
EJ |
1.000 |
0.033 |
0.022 |
0.025 |
0.948 |
Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2] |
Btce |
30.300 |
1.000 |
0.675 |
0.761 |
28.720 |
Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3] |
Btoe |
44.900 |
1.482 |
1.000 |
1.128 |
42.559 |
Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4] |
Tcm NG |
39.800 |
1.314 |
0.886 |
1.000 |
37.725 |
Quadrillion Btu |
Quad |
1.055 |
0.035 |
0.023 |
0.027 |
1.000 |
[1] These factors are as per footnote 1 on p. 2, and follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. Chinese average raw coal contains 20.93 GJ/metric ton (low heat), or 22.51 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for coal are 93% of high-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce), a unit that bears little relation to the heating value of coals actually in use in China. One tce equal 29.31 GJ (low heat) equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/ t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values. |
Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter.
Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 92
Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States
Energy Conversion
ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS
From one:
To:
EJ
Btce
Btoe
Tcm NG
Quad
Exajoule
EJ
1.000
0.033
0.022
0.025
0.948
Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2]
Btce
30.300
1.000
0.675
0.761
28.720
Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3]
Btoe
44.900
1.482
1.000
1.128
42.559
Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4]
Tcm NG
39.800
1.314
0.886
1.000
37.725
Quadrillion Btu
Quad
1.055
0.035
0.023
0.027
1.000
[1] These factors are as per footnote 1 on p. 2, and follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values.
[2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. Chinese average raw coal contains 20.93 GJ/metric ton (low heat), or 22.51 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for coal are 93% of high-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce), a unit that bears little relation to the heating value of coals actually in use in China. One tce equal 29.31 GJ (low heat) equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat).
[3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/ t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values.
[4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values.
OCR for page 92
Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States
Chinese factors:
low heat
conversion
high heat
average raw coal
GJ/t
20.93
0.93
22.51
standard coal equivalent
GJ/tce
29.31
0.93
31.52
oil
GJ/t
41.87
0.95
44.07
natural gas
GJ/tcm
38.98
0.90
43.31
Both tables courtesy of J.E. Sinton, Energy Analysis Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Multiplier Prefixes for use with International System of Units (SI) Prefixes
kilo = thousand = 103
mega = million = 106
giga = billion = 109
tera = trillion = 1012
peta = quadrillion = 1015
exa = quantrillion = 1018
Adapted from EIA, Annual Review of Energy 1997
Abbreviations
Quad = quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu)
mtce = million ton of coal equivalent
mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent
boe = barrel of oil equivalent
One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil
One short ton (2000 lbs.) = 0.907 metric tons
One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters