Energy Conversion

ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

From one:

To:

EJ

Btce

Btoe

Tcm NG

Quad

Exajoule

EJ

1.000

0.033

0.022

0.025

0.948

Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2]

Btce

30.300

1.000

0.675

0.761

28.720

Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3]

Btoe

44.900

1.482

1.000

1.128

42.559

Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4]

Tcm NG

39.800

1.314

0.886

1.000

37.725

Quadrillion Btu

Quad

1.055

0.035

0.023

0.027

1.000

[1] These factors are as per footnote 1 on p. 2, and follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values.

[2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. Chinese average raw coal contains 20.93 GJ/metric ton (low heat), or 22.51 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for coal are 93% of high-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce), a unit that bears little relation to the heating value of coals actually in use in China. One tce equal 29.31 GJ (low heat) equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat).

[3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/ t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values.

[4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values.



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OCR for page 92
Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States Energy Conversion ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule EJ 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2] Btce 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3] Btoe 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4] Tcm NG 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 Quadrillion Btu Quad 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000 [1] These factors are as per footnote 1 on p. 2, and follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. Chinese average raw coal contains 20.93 GJ/metric ton (low heat), or 22.51 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for coal are 93% of high-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce), a unit that bears little relation to the heating value of coals actually in use in China. One tce equal 29.31 GJ (low heat) equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/ t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values.

OCR for page 92
Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States Chinese factors:   low heat conversion high heat average raw coal GJ/t 20.93 0.93 22.51 standard coal equivalent GJ/tce 29.31 0.93 31.52 oil GJ/t 41.87 0.95 44.07 natural gas GJ/tcm 38.98 0.90 43.31 Both tables courtesy of J.E. Sinton, Energy Analysis Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Multiplier Prefixes for use with International System of Units (SI) Prefixes kilo = thousand = 103 mega = million = 106 giga = billion = 109 tera = trillion = 1012 peta = quadrillion = 1015 exa = quantrillion = 1018 Adapted from EIA, Annual Review of Energy 1997 Abbreviations Quad = quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu) mtce = million ton of coal equivalent mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent boe = barrel of oil equivalent One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil One short ton (2000 lbs.) = 0.907 metric tons One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters