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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

The project was also approved by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

This study was supported by Grant No. DE-FG01-98EEE35047 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy Grant Number C826453-01-0 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and funds provided by the U.S. National Academies. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering each provided funds to cover costs of their participation in this study. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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