Materials in a New Era

Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum

Solid State Sciences Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Materials in a New Era Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-9802308, the U.S. Department of Commerce under Grant No. 43SBNB867063, and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER45554. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06799-5 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report are available from: Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy National Research Council, HA 562 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE THOMAS P. RUSSELL, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, Chair MYRIAM P. SARACHIK, CUNY/City College of New York, Vice Chair PAUL A. FLEURY, University of New Mexico, Past Chair GABRIEL AEPPLI, NEC Research Institute FRANK S. BATES, University of Minnesota MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GERALD D. MAHAN, University of Tennessee at Knoxville DAVID MONCTON, Argonne National Laboratory CHERRY A. MURRAY, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI, Harvard University JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories JAMES ROBERTO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory J. MICHAEL ROWE, National Institute of Standards and Technology DALE W. SCHAEFER, University of Cincinnati KEVIN D. AYLESWORTH, Program Officer BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair GORDON BAYM, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign WILLIAM BIALLEK, NEC Research Institute VAL FITCH, Princeton University RICHARD D. HAZELTINE, University of Texas at Austin JOHN HUCHRA, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOHN C. MATHER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center CHERRY A. MURRAY, Lucent Technologies ANNEILA I. SARGENT, California Institute of Technology JOSEPH H. TAYLOR, JR., Princeton University KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Research and Development Center J. ANTHONY TYSON, Lucent Technologies CARL WIEMANN, University of Colorado/JILA PETER G. WOLYNES, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director KEVIN AYLESWORTH, Program Officer JOEL PARRIOTT, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Senior Administrative Associate GRACE WANG, Senior Project Associate MICHAEL LU, Project Associate

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian ERIM International, Inc., Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado/JILA, Co-chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California, Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA M. McDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET NORWOOD, U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics (retired) M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director (through July 1999) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director (from August 1999)

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Acknowledgment of Reviewers These proceedings have been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gordon A. Baym, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, David Campbell, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Charles W. Clark, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Denis McWhan, Brookhaven National Laboratory, James J. Rhyne, University of Missouri, and Nicholas P. Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, the responsibility for the final content of this proceedings rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Contents      Abstract   1      Executive Summary Thomas P. Russell, Chair, Solid State Sciences Committee   3      Summary of Articles   3      Keynote Address: Unlocking Our Future Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Office of Representative Vernon Ehlers   11  I:   Materials and the Federal Role        Perspectives from the Office of Science and Technology Policy Arthur Bienenstock, Associate Director for Science   15      Perspectives from the National Institutes of Health Marvin Cassman, Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences   16      Perspectives from the U.S. Department of Energy Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Science   17      Perspectives from the U.S. Department of Defense Hans Mark, Director of Defense Research and Engineering   18      Perspectives from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Raymond G. Kammer, Director   20      Perspectives from the National Science Foundation Robert A. Eisenstein, Assistant Director, Mathematical and Physical Sciences   22  II:   Materials R&D in a Changing World        Report of the Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics Venkatesh Narayanamurti, Harvard University   25      Materials R&D in Industry Cherry A. Murray, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies   26      Changing Roles for Research Universities J. David Litster, Massachusetts Institute of Technology   29      Changing Roles for Government Laboratories John P. McTague, Vice President (retired), Ford Motor Company   30

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum      Panel Discussion of the Future of Materials R&D Moderator: Tom Russell, Chair, Solid State Sciences Committee Panel: Cherry A. Murray, Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics; Venkatesh Narayanamurti, Chair, Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics; Skip Stiles, House Science Committee Minority Staff; William Oosterhuis, Department of Energy; Harlan Watson, House Science Committee Majority Staff; Thomas Weber, National Science Foundation   32  III:   Materials Education and Infrastructure        Materials Education for the 21st Century Robert P.H. Chang, Northwestern University   35      Meeting the Challenge in Neutron Science Thom Mason, Scientific Director, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory   37      Toward a Fourth-Generation Light Source David E. Moncton, Associate Laboratory Director, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory   38      Smaller Facilities—Opportunities and Needs J. Murray Gibson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory   41  IV:   Materials R&D—A Vision of the Scientific Frontier        The Science of Modern Technology Paul Peercy, SEMI/SEMATECH   43      Novel Quantum Phenomena in Condensed-Matter Systems Steven M. Girvin, Indiana University   46      Nonequilibrium Physics James S. Langer, University of California, Santa Barbara   48      Soft Condensed Matter V. Adrian Parsegian, National Institutes of Health   49      Fractional Charges and Other Tales from Flatland Horst Störmer, Bell Laboratories and Columbia University   50     List of Participants  

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Materials in a New Era: Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum Materials in a New Era Proceedings of the 1999 Solid State Sciences Committee Forum

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