nating center for two federally funded, multicenter randomized trials: The Ischemic Optic Decompression Trial and the Surgical Treatments Outcomes Project for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding.

BERTIE A. FORD, M.S., R.N., O.C.N., is a clinical nurse specialist with Amgen. Until taking up this position, she had been Manager of Clinical Research and the Cancer Registry at Grant/Riverside Hospitals, Columbus, Ohio, since February 1998. Earlier, Ms. Ford was Clinical Trials Program Coordinator in the Ohio State University Department of Internal Medicine for most of the period from 1988. During that period she spent a brief time at Pharmacia in clinical research, and earlier, she held various positions with oncology research groups. She has recently been appointed to the steering council of the Oncology Nursing Society and wrote several chapters for the society's clinical trial manual for nurses. She is currently president of the Columbus Chapter of the National Black Nurses Association. Ms. Ford served on the National Cancer Policy Board from 1997 through April 1999.

PETER D. FOX, Ph.D., has been an independent consultant specializing in managed care since 1991. For the 10 previous years he was a vice president at Lewin and Associates (now The Lewin Group), a consulting company. His clients include managed care organizations, health care provider groups, employers, Taft-Hartley trust funds, government agencies, and foundations. He previously held positions in the federal government, including serving as Director of the Office of Policy Analysis in the Health Care Financing Administration. He has written three books and many articles and book chapters on issues related to health care financing and delivery with an emphasis on managed care.

LANCE LIEBMAN, L.L.B., William S. Beinecke Professor of Law, Columbia University Law School, is Director of Columbia's Parker School of Foreign and Comparative Law and Director of the American Law Institute. He has had a distinguished career in public service and academic law over the past 30 years. From 1991 to 1996, he was Dean of the Columbia University Law School.

JOHN M. LUDDEN, M.D., is Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School. Previously, Dr. Ludden was Senior Vice President, Medical Affairs of Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, where he headed the Department of Medical Affairs and Health Policy from 1994 to 1998. Dr. Ludden served as Corporate Medical Director from 1983 to 1994. He joined Harvard Community Health Plan in 1972, where he was a staff psychiatrist and Director of the Kenmore Health Center. Before joining Harvard Community Health Plan, Dr. Ludden served as Director and CoDirector of the Alcohol Clinic at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He was also Chief of the Psychiatric Division of the Directorate of Mental Hygiene at the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks in Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, and psychiatrist in the U.S. Army. Dr. Ludden serves on the boards of the National Committee for



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