Aggression, 50, 226

Alabama, 262

Alphabet song, 193.

See also Letter recognition

American Academy of Pediatrics, 259

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 278

American children. See also Culture/race/ethnicity

competitiveness, 162–163, 226

independence and autonomy, 111

interpersonal values, 162–163

language learning, 63–64

mathematics, 63

prototypical nuclear family, 112–113

American Indians

activity level of children, 126

attentiveness of children, 126

Choctaw culture, 114

Navaho language and culture, 63, 113, 115

Pueblo culture, 114

Amygdala, 56

Analogies, 43

Anger, 103, 105, 107, 109

Anterior cingulate gyrus, 56

Arguing, 102, 104, 106, 108

Arizona At-Risk Preschool Program, 280–281, 297

Arkansas Better Chance, 280–281, 296

Arts and crafts, 9, 67, 79, 81, 185

Asian children. See also Culture/race/ethnicity

articulation, 126

behavior of, 93

Chinese language and culture, 62, 111

English-language learning, 116

motor skills, 118, 126

task persistence, 85

Assessment. See also Standardized tests

for accountability reasons, 11, 12, 17, 20, 233, 240, 257–258

attention/attentiveness and, 237

“authentic,” 244, 247–248

beneficence considerations, 235

challenges, 234–235

of child-caregiver interactions, 49, 273

of children with disabilities, 11, 167, 239–240, 243, 245, 253–254, 258

clinical interview, 12, 243–245, 254

of cognitive skills, 137, 156

of competencies in young children, 12, 242–249

critical conditions for, 249–250

cultural considerations, 237–239, 252, 257

curriculum-embedded, 20, 137–143, 242, 314–315

diagnostic, 20, 234, 252, 253–254, 259

documentation methods, 248–249

dynamic system of, 246–247

of economically disadvantaged children, 256–257, 258

environments for, 236

of functional emotional skills, 253–254

guiding principles, 235

for instructional improvement, 11, 16, 17, 20, 234, 241–252, 257, 259–260, 267–269

interviewer qualifications, 244

of motor skills, 117, 246

observational modes of, 227–228, 237, 250–251

obstacles to implementation, 251–252

pedagogy and, 11, 16, 17, 234, 241–252

performance, 12, 45, 247–249, 250–251

for program evaluation, 11

for public policy reasons, 11, 20, 234, 257–259

reasons for using, 234–235



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement