retention, tracking, suspension, and expulsion on delinquency, educational attainment, and school atmosphere and environment (see Chapter 3);

  • Using prospective longitudinal studies to increase understanding of the role of factors in prenatal, perinatal, and early infant development on mechanisms that increase the likelihood of healthy development, as well as the development of antisocial behavior (see Chapter 3);

  • Studying long-term outcomes of well-designed interventions that have shown short-term promise for reducing delinquency (see Chapter 4);

  • Evaluating the adequacy of standards for juvenile detention and correctional facilities (see Chapter 5); and

  • Developing a research agenda on juvenile justice system practices and their effects, including the extent, systemic effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of the various possible dispositions of juvenile cases, and the long-term effects of transferring juveniles to adult court and incarcerating them in adult facilities (see Chapter 5).

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