Age at treatment

Length of treatment

Length of follow-up

Delinquency and antisocial behavior outcomes

Other outcomes

12- to 17-years-old

4 months


More court contacts among control group, but differences not statistically significant

School and home behavior more likely to improve among experimental group

7th-8th graders

2 years

5 years

Significantly fewer court contacts among program group

High School

8 weeks


Increased school attendance rates for experimental group

1st grade

1 year

1 month

Intervention schools had lower rates of peer- and teacherrated aggression and lower rates of teacher rated conduct problems

Intervention schools had more positive classroom atmospheres as rated by independent observers

1st and 2nd grades

2 years

6 years

For program boys, reduction in aggressive behavior

13- to 17-year-olds

16 to 20 weeks

Post intervention and 1 year

Fewer police and court contacts among intervention group immediately post intervention, but no difference at 1 year follow-up

Fewer referrals to principal's office, less absenteeism, and better grades in humanities and social sciences among intervention group at post-intervention and 1 year

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