1992 and 1997, 47 states and the District of Columbia changed their laws in at least one of these ways. State laws have also been changed in two other areas: regarding the rights of victims of juvenile crimes and in correctional programming. Table 5-5 indicates the type of changes made in each state between 1992 and 1997.

Ease of Transfer to Criminal Court

Determining which children belong in juvenile court has been an issue since the court's beginnings (Tanenhaus, 2000). There are a number

TABLE 5-5 How States Have Stiffened Laws Relating to Juvenile Justice in 1992-1997, by Type of Change

State

Type of Changes in Law

State

Type of Changes in Law

Alabama

T

C

V

Montana

T

S

C

V

CP

Alaska

T

C

V

Nebraska

Arizona

T

S

C

V

CP

Nevada

T

C

V

CP

Arkansas

T

S

C

CP

New Hampshire

T

S

C

V

California

T

C

V

CP

New Jersey

S

C

CP

Colorado

T

S

C

CP

New Mexico

T

S

C

V

CP

Connecticut

T

S

C

V

CP

New York

Delaware

T

S

C

North Carolina

T

C

CP

D.C.

T

S

North Dakota

T

C

V

CP

Florida

T

S

C

V

CP

Ohio

T

S

C

V

CP

Georgia

T

S

C

V

CP

Oklahoma

T

S

C

V

CP

Hawaii

T

C

CP

Oregon

T

S

C

V

CP

Idaho

T

S

C

V

CP

Pennsylvania

T

C

V

Illinois

T

S

C

V

Rhode Island

T

S

C

CP

Indiana

T

S

C

V

South Carolina

T

C

V

CP

Iowa

T

S

C

V

South Dakota

T

V

CP

Kansas

T

S

C

CP

Tennessee

T

S

C

CP

Kentucky

T

S

C

V

CP

Texas

T

S

C

V

CP

Louisiana

T

S

C

V

CP

Utah

T

C

V

CP

Maine

C

V

CP

Vermont

V

CP

Maryland

T

C

V

CP

Virginia

T

S

C

Massachusetts

T

S

C

V

Washington

T

C

CP

Michigan

T

S

C

CP

West Virginia

T

C

Minnesota

T

S

C

V

CP

Wisconsin

T

S

C

CP

Mississippi

T

C

CP

Wyoming

C

V

CP

Missouri

T

S

C

CP

T = transfer provisions; S = sentencing authority; C = confidentiality; V = victims' rights; CP = correctional programming.

Source: Adapted from Snyder and Sickmund (1999) and Torbet et al.(1996).



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