credit to physicians who request point-of-care information during patient interactions. Information on this program is available online at <http://shine.stanford.edu>.
32. These figures were provided by Dennis Benson at the National Library of Medicine in a personal communication dated February 11, 2000.
33. There have been laboratories whose access to NCBI/PubMed was suspended temporarily when usage rates climbed too high. One lab at Stanford lost access after a graduate student wrote programs that were downloading 3,000 abstracts per minute from the Web site. The scientific goals of this student were meritorious, but the resource was not built to sustain this use (Russ Altman, Stanford University, personal communication, December 22, 1999).
34. James Ostell, National Center for Biotechnology Information, presentation to the study committee on March 1, 1999, Washington, D.C.
35. Researchers at the University of Cambridge, the University of California at San Diego (see Box 2.4), and the University Hospital Charité in Berlin have all developed Internet-based systems for controlling experimental apparatus (Chand et al., 1997).
36. Electron tomography is a technique whereby three-dimensional structure is derived from a series of two-dimensional projections using advanced image processing steps. In the most common form, the specimen is tilted around a single axis and imaged at regular intervals. The IVEM at NCMIR is one of a few such instruments in the United States made available to the biological research community. Support for NCMIR is provided by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
37. This information is taken from a paper entitled ''NCMIR's Collaboratory for Microscopic Digital Anatomy: A National Science Foundation National Challenge Project," which is available online at <www-ncmir.ucsd.edu/CMDA/>.
38. CMDA has already been used by researchers at Montana State University to collect data on synaptic organization in the sensory ganglia of the insect nervous system and by scientists at the University of Oregon studying neurotransmission (synaptic vesicle release) in vestibular hair cell synapses. Other users are studying the abnormalities in nerve cells in Alzheimer's disease, the structural relationships of protein molecules responding to calcium within nerve cells, and the three-dimensional pattern of branching of the dendrites in neurons that create a highly linked network of cellular communication.
39. In the longer term, it is hoped that digital video standards will give good resolution and smooth motion at 30 frames per second at much lower bandwidth.
40. More information on SRS is available at <http://srs.ebi.ac.uk:5000/>. Information on Biokleisli is available at <http://smi-web.stanford.edu/projects/helix/mis214/bdkowvldb95.pdf> (a paper). Information on KEGG is available at <http://www.genome.ad.jp/dbget/dbget.links.html>.
41. Clinical research lies at the juncture of clinical care, biomedical research, and public health but is somewhat distinct from each of these topics. It is described in the section on biomedical research in this report for reasons of editorial convenience and exposition.break