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very lowest layer of the protocol stack; for example, the transmission links of the two different networks might share a physical fiber. At the same time, the separation is only as good as the trust of the user in the service provider. A simple misconfiguration of a router could connect a third-party link to a private network. In addition, the service provider has full access to the data carried over a private network.
16. As a result of recent consolidation in the insurance industry, for example, care providers now work with policies established in large corporate headquarters that are greater distances away, and standards for reducing the administrative burden on providers can no longer be set at the state level.
17. For more information, see <http://www.ccic.gov>.
18. The formal specification of the NGI program reverses the second and third items in the list above. The order of presentation is changed herein for stylistic purposes and to highlight that the development of testbed networks is just one element of a much broader-based program.
19. The term "telemedicine" refers to the delivery of health services when distance separates the care provider and patient (see Institute of Medicine, 1996). This construction recognizes that a range of different interactions are possible, from videoconferencing at the one extreme to the use of the telephone or text e-mail at the other. Indeed, the most prevalent uses of telemedicine today are not video-based but involve the use of asynchronous store-and-forward systems to exchange still images across networks. Other applications include telephone- or Internet-based systems for monitoring patients in their homes.
20. The study committee visited with the researchers at NASA Ames Research Center as part of this project. A summary of that visit is contained in Appendix A of this report.
21. It is expected that 25 more sites will be added to this testbed in FY00.
22. The vBNS is a nationwide network that supports high-performance, high-bandwidth research applications. Launched in 1995, it is the product of a 5-year cooperative agreement between NSF and MCI WorldCom. Approximately 100 research institutions, chosen through a peer-review process, will be connected to the network. It currently connects 92 institutions.
23. For additional information on Internet 2 and UCAID, see <http://www.ucaid.org>.
24. Belfast Telegraph Online 10/26/99 as summarized in "Internet 2 Gets Ready to Operate," Edupage, November 1, 1999.
25. This information was obtained from the Abilene Web site at <http://www.ucaid.edu/abilene>.
26. For additional information on these networks and the evolution of the Internet more generally, see Chapter 7 in Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (1999).break