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GRADING THE NATION S REPORT CARD Research from the Evaluation of NAEP Committee on the Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress Nambury S. Raju, James W. Pellegrino, Meryl W. Bertenthal, Karen J. Mitchell, and Lee R. Jones, editors Board on Testing and Assessment Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Award No. EA95083001 between the National Academy of Sci- ences and the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommenda- tions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2000) Grading the Nation's Report Card: Research from the Evaluation of NAEP. Committee on the Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress. Nambury S. Raju, James W. Pellegrino, Meryl W. Bertenthal, Karen J. Mitchell, and Lee R. Jones, editors. Board on Testing and Assessment, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Grading the nation's report card: research from the evaluation of NAEP / Nambury S. Raju ... [et al.], editors; Committee on the Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress, Board on Testing and Assessment, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-06844-4 (pbk.) 1. National Assessment of Educational Progress (Project)--Evaluation. 2. Educational tests and measurements--United States. I. Raju, Nambury S. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress. LB3051 .G66688 2000 371.26'0973--dc21 00-008316 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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National Acaclemy of Sciences National Acaclemy of Engineering Institute of Meclicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON THE EVALUATION OF NATIONAL AND STATE ASSESSMENTS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS JAMES W. PELLEGRINO (Chair), Peabody College of Education and Human Development, Vanderbilt University GAIL P. BAXTER, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey NORMAN M. BRADBURN, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago THOMAS P. CARPENTER, Wisconsin Center for Educational Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison ALLAN COLLINS, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts PAS QUALE J. DEVITO, Rhode Island Department of Education, Providence STEPHEN B. DUNBAR, College of Education, University of Iowa THOMAS H. FISHER, Department of Education, State of Florida, Tallahassee LARRY V. HEDGES, Department of Education, University of Chicago ROBERT J. KANSKY,2 Department of Teacher Education, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio SHARON LEWIS, Council of the Great City Schools, Washington, D.C. RODERICK J.A. LITTLE, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan ELSIE G.J. MOORE, College of Education, Arizona State University NAMBURY S. RAJU, Institute of Psychology, Illinois Institute of Technology MARLENE SCARDAMALIA, CACS/Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto GUADALUPE VALDES, School of Education, Stanford University SHEILA W. VALENCIA, College of Education, University of Washington LAURESS L. WISE, Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, Virginia LEE R. JONES, Senior Program Officer KAREN J. MITCHELL, Senior Program Officer MERYL W. BERTENTHAL, Program Officer KIMBERLY D. SALDIN, Senior Project Assistant iMember until October 1996. 2Member until June 1996. v

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BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT 1998-1999 ROBERT L. LINN (Chair), School of Education, University of Colorado CARL F. KAESTLE (Vice Chair), Department of Education, Brown University RICHARD C. ATKINSON, President, University of California PAUL J. BLACK, School of Education, King's College, London RICHARD P. DURAN, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, JR., Harvard Law School RONALD FERGUSON, John F. Kennedy School of Public Policy, Harvard University ROBERT M. HAWSER, Center for Demography, University of Wisconsin, Madison PAUL W. HOLLAND, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley RICHARD M. JAEGER, School of Education, University of North Carolina, Greensboro LORRAINE M. McDONNELL, Department of Political Sciences, University of California, S ante B. arbara BARBARA MEANS, SRI International, Menlo Park, California KENNETH PEARLMAN, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Warren, New Jersey ANDREW C. PORTER, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison CATHERINE E. SNOW, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University WILLIAM L. TAYLOR, Attorney at Law, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM T. TRENT, Office of the Chancellor, University of Illinois VICKI VANDAVEER, The Vandaveer Group, Inc., Houston, Texas LAURESS L. WISE, Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, Virginia KENNETH I. WOLPIN, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania MICHAEL J. FEWER, Director VIOLA C. HOREK, Administrative Associate LISA D. ALSTON, Administrative Assistant vim

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CONTRIBUTORS SHEILA BARRON, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. ROBERT BORUCH, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania PATRICIA ANN KENNEY, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MICHAEL J. KOLEN, Iowa Testing Programs, The University of Iowa, Iowa City KEVIN MEARA, School of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst JIM MINSTRELL, ACT Systems for Education, Bellevue, Washington MICHELLE PERRY, School of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign FREDERIC ROBIN, School of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst H. JANE ROGERS, Teachers College, Columbia University STEPHEN G. SIRECI, School of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst JAMES W. STIGLER, Psychology Department, University of California, Los Angeles HARIHARAN SWAMINATHAN, School of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst GEORGE TERHANIAN, Harris Black International Limited, Rochester, New York JENNIFER R. ZIELESKIEWICZ, Institute of Psychology, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago . . vat

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Contents Introduction ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT 2 Families of Items in the NAEP Mathematics Assessment Patricia Ann Kenney 3 Student Thinking and Related Assessment: Creating a Facet-Based Learning Environment Jim Minstrell CONTENT VALIDITY 4 An External Evaluation of the 1996 Grade 8 NAEP Science Framework Stephen G. Sireci, Fre'de'ric Robin, Kevin Meara, H. Jane Rogers, and Ha riha ran Swaminathan 5 Appraising the Dimensionality of the 1996 Grade 8 NAEP Science Assessment Data Stephen G. Sireci, H. Jane Rogers, Hariharan Swaminathan, Kevin Meara, and Fre'de'ric Robin 6 Subject-Matter Experts' Perceptions of the Relevance of the NAEP Long-Term Trend Items in Science and Mathematics Jennifer R. Zieleskiewicz Six 5 44 74 101 123

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x NAEP DESIGN AND USE 7 Issues in Phasing Out Trend NAEP Michael J. Kolen 8 Issues in Combining State NAEP and Main NAEP Michael J. Kolen 9 Difficulties Associated with Secondary Analysis of NAEP Data Sheila Barron EDUCATION INDICATOR SYSTEM DESIGN 10 Putting Surveys, Studies, and Datasets Together: Linking NCES Surveys to One Another and to Datasets from Other Sources George Terhanian and Robert Boruch 11 Developing Classroom Process Data for the Improvement of Teaching James W. Stigler and Michelle Perry CONTENTS 132 152 172 195 229

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GRADING THE NATION S REPORT CARD

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