IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH

SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP

Forum on Adolescence

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

and

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP Forum on Adolescence Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Grant No 99-10301 between the National Academy of Sciences and Carnegie Corporation of New York. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06792-8 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313(in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2000) Improving Intergroup Relations Among Youth: Summary of a Research Workshop. Forum on Adolescence, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP FORUM ON ADOLESCENCE DAVID HAMBURG (Chair), Carnegie Corporation of New York (President Emeritus) HUDA AKIL, Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHERYL ALEXANDER, Center for Adolescent Health, Johns Hopkins University CLAIRE BRINDIS, Institute for Health Policy Studies, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco GREG DUNCAN, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University JACQUELYNNE ECCLES, School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ABIGAIL ENGLISH, Adolescent Health Care Project, National Center for Youth Law, Chapel Hill, North Carolina EUGENE GARCIA, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley HELENE KAPLAN, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, and Flom, New York IRIS F. LITT, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Stanford University JOHN MERROW, The Merrow Report, New York ANNE C. PETERSEN, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, Michigan KAREN PITTMAN, International Youth Foundation, Baltimore ANNE PUSEY, Jane Goodall Institute's Center, University of Minnesota MICHAEL RUTTER, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London STEPHEN A. SMALL, Department of Child and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison BEVERLY DANIEL TATUM, Office of the Dean, Mt. Holyoke College CAMILLE ZUBRINSKY CHARLES, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania BARUCH FISCHHOFF (liaisonfrom Institute of Medicine Council), Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (liaison from Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP Michele D. Kipke, Director Zodie E. Makonnen, Associate Director Amy Gawad, Senior Project Assistant Elena Nightingale, Adviser

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES JACK P. SHONKOFF (Chair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University DAVID V.B. BRITT, Children's Television Workshop, New York LARRY BUMPASS, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison SHEILA BURKE, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University DAVID CARD, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley KEVIN GRUMBACH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, University of California, San Francisco MAXINE HAYES, Department of Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University ALETHA C. HUSTON, Department of Human Ecology, University of Texas, Austin RENEE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University SHEILA KAMERMAN, School of Social Work, Columbia University SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida SARA McLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University VONNIE McLOYD, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco DEBORAH STIPEK, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles PAUL WISE, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP EVAN CHARNEY (liaison from Institute of Medicine Council), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School RUTH T. GROSS (liaison from Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention), Professor of Pediatrics Emerita, Stanford University ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (liaison from Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University Michele D. Kipke, Director Drusilla Barnes, Administrative Associate Elena Nightingale, Scholar-in-Residence

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS WORKSHOP ON RESEARCH TO IMPROVE INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH DAVID HAMBURG (Chair), Carnegie Corporation of New York (President Emeritus) DENNIS J. BARR, Facing History and Ourselves, Cambridge, Massachusetts REBECCA BLANK, Council of Economic Advisers, Washington, D.C. KELLY BRILLIANT, Program for Young Negotiators, Cambridge, Massachusetts PHYLLIS C. BROWN, Lesley College DAVID CAMPT, President's Initiative on Race, Washington, D.C. CINDY CARLSON, University of Texas, Austin KENYON CHAN, Loyola Marymount University CAMILLE ZUBRINSKY CHARLES, University of Pennsylvania BARBARA COLLINS, Education Training and Research Associates, Santa Cruz, California CONSTANCE FLANAGAN, Pennsylvania State University MICHELE FOSTER, Claremont Graduate University EUGENE GARCIA, University of California, Berkeley SHERRYL BROWNE GRAVES, Hunter College, City University of New York PATRICIA MARKS GREENFIELD, University of California, Los Angeles DIANE HUGHES, New York University PHYLLIS A. KATZ, Institute for Research on Social Issues, Boulder, Colorado TERESA D. LaFROMBOISE, Stanford University MICHAEL LEVINE, Carnegie Corporation of New York GERALDINE P. MANNION, Carnegie Corporation of New York ALFRED L. McALISTER, University of Texas, Austin HOWARD L. PINDERHUGHES, University of California, San Francisco LINDA POWELL, Columbia University AVERY RUSSELL, Carnegie Corporation of New York EDWARD SEIDMAN, New York University ROBERT L. SELMAN, Harvard University

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP RONALD G. SLABY, Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, Massachusetts FERNANDO I. SORIANO, San Diego State University MARGARET BEALE SPENCER, University of Pennsylvania ALEX STEPICK, Florida International University VIVIEN STEWART, Carnegie Corporation of New York RUBY TAKANISHI, Foundation for Child Development, New York BEVERLY DANIEL TATUM, Mount Holyoke College LOIS WEIS, State University of New York, Buffalo HANH CAO YU, Social Policy Research Associates, Menlo Park, California Michele D. Kipke, Director, Forum on Adolescence Zodie E. Makonnen, Associate Director, Forum on Adolescence Faith Mitchell, Director, Division on Social and Economic Studies Amy Gawad, Senior Project Assistant, Forum on Adolescence

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP Preface On November 9-10, 1998, the Forum on Adolescence of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, a cross-cutting initiative of the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, convened a workshop entitled Research to Improve Intergroup Relations Among Youth. Held at the request of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, this workshop considered selected findings of 16 research projects that have focused on intergroup relations among children and adolescents; all 16 received funding from Carnegie Corporation of New York for their work on this issue. The funding of these projects was part of a larger research initiative supported by Carnegie Corporation of New York that sought to update and expand the knowledge, sources, and dynamics of racial and ethnic prejudice among youth, identifying approaches to foster intergroup understanding. The goal of the workshop was to provide an opportunity to learn about the work and preliminary findings of the 16 projects, as well as to review the knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote peaceful, respectful relations among youth of different ethnic groups. Although the workshop on which this summary is based could provide only a glimpse of the large body of research covered by the many disciplines studying intergroup relations, it reflects the overarching mission of the Fo-

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP rum on Adolescence. The forum was established under the auspices of the Board of Children, Youth, and Families in 1997 to review and establish the science base regarding adolescent health and development and efforts to foster this development; identify new directions and support for research in this area, approaching research as a resource to be developed cumulatively over time; highlight new research, programs, and policies that have demonstrated promise in improving the health and well-being of adolescents; convene and foster collaboration among individuals who represent diverse viewpoints and backgrounds, with a view to enhancing the quality of leadership in this area; and disseminate research on adolescence and its policy implications to a wide array of audiences, ranging from the scientific community to the lay public. We offer our appreciation to all of the presenters and participants for their time and contributions. Special thanks go to the Carnegie Corporation of New York staff, in particular Anthony W. Jackson, Michael Levine, Roz Rosenberg, Susan Smith, and Vivien Stewart, for their assistance and support. Thanks are also due to Zodie Makonnen and Amy Gawad of the National Research Council staff, who helped to organize the workshop, and Sandee Brawarsky, who distilled the major themes that emerged from the workshop in this summary report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: James A. Banks, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle; Sarah Brown, National Campaign to Prevent Teenage Pregnancy, Washington, D.C.; Maxine Hayes, Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health; Janet W. Schofield, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh; and Deborah Stipek, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles. Although the individuals listed above have pro-

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP vided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for this final report rests entirely with the authoring body and the institution. We hope this report will stimulate and encourage those interested in fostering and promoting positive intergroup relations among youth. David Hamburg, Chair Michele D. Kipke, Director Forum on Adolescence

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP Contents     Improving Intergroup Relations Among Youth   1     This Rich and Growing Diversity   6     The Meaning of Positive Intergroup Relations   8     Youth and Identity Formation   10     Schools and Their Influence   12     The Power of Teachers   15     Curricula as Tools   16     School-Based Extracurricular Activities   17     Peer Influence   18     At Home: Parents and Their Influence   21     In the Community   21     The Role of Media and Technology   22     Toward a New Research Agenda: The Challenges   23     References and Bibliography   25  Appendix A:   Project Descriptions   31  Appendix B:   Workshop Agenda   71     Selected Reports of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families   75

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IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH: SUMMARY OF A RESEARCH WORKSHOP IMPROVING INTERGROUP RELATIONS AMONG YOUTH

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