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Dian Gaffen leads the climate variability and trends group at the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory in Silver Spring, Maryland. Her recent research focuses on observational studies of atmospheric temperature and water vapor changes, climate extremes, and meteorological data quality. She is a member of the American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical Union and a recipient of both the Prof. Dr. Vilho Vaisala Award from the World Meteorological Organization and the NOAA Administrator's Award.

Norman C. Grody is affiliated with NOAA NESDIS (National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service) where he has developed techniques to retrieve atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature, water vapor, rainfall) and identify surface features (e.g., snowcover, sea ice, flooding) using satellite-based microwave radiometers. He has received the U.S. Department of Commerce Bronze and Silver Medal Awards for the development of operational products from the SSM/I and AMSU instruments, respectively.

James E. Hansen is head of the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies. His research interests include radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, interpretation of remote sounding of planetary atmospheres, development of simplified climate models and three-dimensional global climate models, current climate trends from observational data, and projections of man's impact on climate. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Geophysical Union.

David E. Parker is with the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research at The Meteorological Office in the United Kingdom. Since 1979 his work has focused on climatic variability and change and on near-real-time monitoring of climatic variations. He has contributed to the development of global historical data bases for sea surface temperature and sea ice, as well as marine air temperature, mean sea level pressure, and radiosonde-based air temperatures with a view to the detection and attribution of climate changes and the forcing and verification of climate model simulations. He is a fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society; a contributor to the 1990, 1992, 1995, and current IPCC Assessments; and a recipient of the Fitzroy Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society.

Thomas C. Peterson is chief of the Scientific Services Division at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center. His expertise lies in assessing surface data and surface climate variability and change, including analyses of various temperature characteristics. He is a WMO CCI rapporteur on statistical methods for climatology and serves as chair of the Joint WMO CCI/CLIVAR Working Group on Climate Change Detection. He has received the U.S. Department ofcontinue



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