Click for next page ( 92


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 91
r References Aburto, A., D.J. Rountry, and J.L. Danzer. 1997. Behavioral Response of Blue Whales to Active Signals. Technical Report 1746. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). 1995. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the California Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project and Its Associated Marine Mam- mal Research Program. Marine Acoustics, Inc., Arlington, VA. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion (NOAA). 1995. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Kauai Acoustic Thermom- etry of Ocean Climate Project and Its Associated Marine Mammal Research Program. Marine Acoustics, Inc., Arlington, VA. Ahroon, W.A., R.P. Hamernik, and S.F. Lei. 1996. The effects of reverberant blast waves on the auditory system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1009:2247-2257. Andre, M., M. Terada, and Y. Watanabe. 1997. Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) behavioral response after the playback of artificial sounds. Reports of the International Whaling Commis- sion 47:499-504. ATOC Consortium. 1998. Ocean climate change: Comparison of acoustic tomography, satellite altimetry, and modeling. Science 281: 1327 - 1332. Au, W.L.L., P.E. Nachtigall, and J.L. Pawloski. 1997. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 :2973-2977. Baggeroer, A., and W. Munk. 1992. The Heard Island Feasibility Test. Physics Today 45:22-30. Banner, A., and M. Hyatt. 1973. Effects of noise on eggs and larvae of two estuarine fish. Transac- tions of the American Fisheries Society 102:134-136. Bowles, A.E., M. Smultea, B. Wursig, D.P. DeMaster, and D. Palka. 1994. Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96:2469-2484. Burgess, W.C., P.L. Tyack, B.J. LeBoeuf, and D.P. Costa. 1998. A programmable acoustic record- ing tag and first results from free-ranging northern elephant seals. Deep-Sea Research 45: 1327- 1351. Calambokidis, J. 1996. Preliminary (Quick-Look) Analysis of Aerial Survey Data Surveys Con- ducted Through March 1996. ATOC Program Office, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA. 9

OCR for page 91
92 MARINE MAMMALS AND LOW-FREQUENCY SOUND Calambokidis, J. 1999. Aerial surveys conducted off Pioneer Seamount for the ATOC Marine Mammal Research Program. Unpublished report to MMRP Advisory Board. Clark, C.W. 1995. Application of U.S. Navy underwater hydrophore arrays for scientific research on whales. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 45:210-212. Clark, C.W., and J.M. Clark. 1980. Sound playback experiments with southern right whales. Sci- ence 207:663-665. Corwin, J.T., and J.C. Oberholtzer. 1997. Fish 'n chicks: Model recipes for hair-cell regeneration? Neuron 19:951-954. Costa, D.P., D.E. Crocker, J. Gedamke, P.M. Webb, D. Houser, and S. Blackwell. 1999. Effects of the ATOC sound source on the diving behavior of northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Unpublished paper, University of California, Santa Cruz. Costa, D.P., and T.M. Williams. 1999. Marine mammal energetics. Pp. 176-217 in Biology of Marine Mammals, J.E. Reynolds III and John R. Twiss, Jr. (eds.), Smithsonian Press, Washing- ton, DC. Crane, N.L., and K. Lashkari. 1996. Sound production of gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, along their migration route: A new approach to signal analysis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100:1878-1886. Crum, L.A., and Y. Mao. 1996. Acoustically enhanced bubble growth at low frequencies and its implications for human diver and marine mammal safety. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99:2898-2907. Dahlheim, M.E., and D.K. Ljungblad. 1990. Preliminary hearing study on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the field. Pp. 335-346 in Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence, J.A. Thomas and R.A. Kastelein (eds.). Plenum Press, New York. D'Amico, A. 1998. Summary Record, SACLANTCEN Bioacoustics Panel, La Spezia, Italy, June 15-17, 1998 (available at http://www.saclantc.nato.int/whales/). Decory, L., A.L. Dancer, and J-M Aran. 1992. Species differences and mechanisms of damage. Pp. 73-88 in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, A.L. Dancer, D. Henderson, R.J. Salvi, and R.P. Hamernik (eds.). Mosby, St. Louis, MO. Demski, L., G.W. Gerald, and A.N. Popper. 1973. Central and peripheral mechanisms in teleost sound production. American Zoologist 13: 1141 - 1167. Department of Commerce (DOC). 1995. Small takes of marine mammals; harassment takings incidental to specified activities. Federal Register 60(104):28379-28386. Department of Commerce (DOC). 1996. Small takes of marine mammals; harassment takings incidental to specified activities in arctic waters; regulation consolidation; update of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval numbers. Federal Register 61 (70):15884-15891. Dolphin, W.F. 1995. The envelope following response in three species of cetaceans. Pp. 147-172 in Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall (eds.). De Spil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands. Dolphin, W.F. 1996. Auditory evoked responses to amplitude modulated stimuli consisting of multiple envelope components. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 179:113-121. Dolphin, W.F. 1997. Electrophysiological measures of auditory processing in odontocetes. Bio- acoustics 8:79-101. Dolphin, W.F., W.W.L. Au, P.E. Nachtigall, and J. Pawloski. 1995. Modulation rate transfer functions to low-frequency carriers in three species of cetaceans. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 177:235-245. Edds, P.L. 1982. Vocalizations of the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, in the St. Lawrence River. Journal of Mammalogy 63 :345-347. Edds, P.L. 1988. Characteristics of finbackBalaenoptera physalus vocalizations in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Bioacoustics 1(2/3): 131-149. Edds-Walton, P.L. 1997. Acoustic communication signals of mysticete whales. Bioacoustics 8(1&2):47-60.

OCR for page 91
REFERENCES 93 Edds-Walton, P.L. 2000. Vocalizations of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Bioacoustics, in press. Erbe, C., and D.M. Farmer. 1998. Masked hearing thresholds of a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in icebreaker noise. Deep-Sea Research II 45:1373-1388. Fluur, E., and J. Adolfson. 1966. Hearing in hyperbaric air. Aerospace Medicine 37:783-785. Frankel, A.S., and C.W. Clark. 1998a. Results of low-frequency playback of M-sequence noise to humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Hawaii. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:521- 535. Frankel, A., and C.W. Clark. 1998b. Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Quick-Look Report of the Hawaiti ATOC-MMRP Hawaiian 1997/98 Results. Unpublished paper. Frankel, A., and C.W. Clark. 1999a. Behavioral responses of humpback whales to operational ATOC signals. Unpublished paper, Cornell University. Frankel, A., and C.W. Clark. l999b. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of humpback whales off the north shore of Kauati. Unpublished paper, Cornell University. Frankel, A.S., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and L.M. Herman. 1995. Estimation of auditory response thresholds in humpback whales using biologically meaningful sounds. Pp. 55-70 in Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigal (eds.). De Spil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands. Frantzis, A. 1998. Does acoustic testing strand whales? Nature 392:29. Gisiner, R. (ed.). 1998. Proceedings. Workshop on the Effects of Anthropogenic Noise in the Marine Environment. Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA. Gordon, J.C.D., D. Gillespie, L.E. Rendell, and R. Leaper. 1996. Draft report on playback of ATOC-like sounds to sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) off the Azores. Unpublished manuscript submitted to the ATOC Marine Mammal Research Program, Bioacoustics Research Program, Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Hall, J.W., III. 1992. Handbook of Auditory Evoked Responses. Allyn and Bacon, Boston. Harvey, J.T., and T. Eguchi. 1997. Effects of ATOC sounds on the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina Richardsi, in Monterey Bay. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. Hastings, M.C., A.N. Popper, J.J. Finneran, and P.J. Lanford. 1996. Effect of low-frequency under- water sound on hair cells of the inner ear and lateral line of the teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99:1759-1766. Hunter-Duvar, I.M., and G. Bredberg. 1974. Effects of intense auditory stimulation: Hearing losses and inner ear changes in the chinchilla. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 55:795- 801. Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI). 1994. Dual Use of IUSS: Telescopes in the Ocean. Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Washington, DC. Kastak, D., and R.J. Schusterman. 1996. Temporary threshold shift in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100: 1905-1908. Kastak, D., and R.J. Schusterman. 1998. Low-frequency amphibious hearing in pinnipeds: Meth- ods, measurements, noise, and ecology. Journal of the acoustical Society of America 103:2216- 2228. Kastak, D., R.J. Schusterman, B.L. Southall, and C.J. Reichmuth. 1999. Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave band noise in three species of pinniped. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106:1142-1148. Ketten, D.R. 1994. Functional analyses of whale ears: Adaptations for underwater hearing. Insti- tute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Proceedings in Underwater Acoustics 1:264-270. Ketten, D.R. 1997. Structure and function in whale ears. Bioacoustics 8(1&2):103-136. Ketten, D.R., J. Lien, and S. Todd. 1993. Blast injury in humpback whale ears: Evidence and implications. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94:1849-1850.

OCR for page 91
94 MARINE MAMMALS AND LOW-FREQUENCY SOUND Klimley, A.P., and S.C. Beavers. 1998. Playback of acoustic thermometry of ocean climate (ATOC)- like signal to bony fishes to evaluate phonotaxis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104:2506-2510. Knudsen, V.O., R.S. Alford, and J.W. Emling. 1948. Underwater ambient noise. Journal of Marine Research 7(3):410-429. Kryter, K.D. 1985. The Effects of Noise on Man. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, Orlando, FL. Lagardere, J.P. 1982. Effects of noise on growth and reproduction of Crangon crangon in rearing tanks. Marine Biology 71: 177- 186. Lapedes, D.N. (Editor-in-chief). 1974. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill, New York. Lesage, V., C. Barrette, M.C.S. Kingsley, and B. Sj are. 1999. The effect of vessel noise on the vocal behavior of belugas in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 15(1):65- 84. Lettvin, J.Y., E.R. Grumberg, R.M. Rose, and G. Plotkin. 1982. Dolphins and the bends. Science 216:650-651. Levendag, P.C., W. Kuijpers, J.J. Eggermont, P. van den Brock, H. Huibers, and P.L. Huygen. 1981. The inner ear and hyperbaric conditions: An electrophysiological and morphological study. Acta Oto-Laryngologica Supplement 382:1-110. Liberman, M.C., and L.W. Dodds. 1987. Acute ultrastructural changes in acoustic trauma: Serial- section reconstruction of stereocilia and cuticular plates. Hearing Research 26:45-64. Ljungblad, D.K., K.M. Stafford, H. Shimada, and K. Matsuoka. 1997. Sounds attributed to blue whales recorded off the southwest coast of Australia in December 1995. Reports of the Inter- national Whaling Commission 47:435-439. Lombarte, A., H.Y. Yan, A.N. Popper, J.C. Chang, and C. Platt. 1993. Damage and regeneration of hair cell ciliary bundles in a fish ear following treatment with gentamicin. Hearing Research 66: 166- 174. Lonsbury-Martin, B.L., G.K. Martin, and B.A. Bohne. 1987. Repeated TTS exposures in monkeys: Alterations in hearing, cochlear structure, and single-unit thresholds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 81: 1507- 1518. Lorenz, K. 1981. The Foundations of Ethology. Springer-Verlag, NY. Luz, G.A., and D.M. Lipscomb. 1973. Susceptibility to damage from impulse noise: Chinchilla versus man or monkey. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 54: 1750-1754. Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack, and J.E. Bird. 1983. Investigations of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behav- ior. Bolt Beranek and Newman Report No. 5366 submitted to the Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. NTIS PB86-218377. Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack, and J.E. Bird. 1984. Investigations of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behav- ior. Phase II. January 1984 migration. Bolt Beranek and Newman Report No. 5586 submitted to the Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. NTIS PB86-218377. Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, G.S. Miller, W.J. Richardson, and D.G. Roseneau. 1989. Analysis and Ranking of the Acoustic Disturbance Potential of Petroleum Industry Activities and Other Sources of Noise in the Environment of Marine Mammals in Alaska. Mineral Management Service, Anchorage. Mate, B.R, K.M. Stafford, and D.K. Ljungblad. 1994. A change in sperm whale (Physeter macro- cephalus) distribution correlated to seismic surveys in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96(5:Part 2):3268-3269. Mattlin, R.H. 1995. Effect of Low-Frequency Sound on Seasonal Foraging Ecology and Diving Behavior of the New Zealand Fur Seal. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

OCR for page 91
REFERENCES 95 McDonald, M.A., J.A. Hildebrand, and S.C. Webb. 1995. Blue and fin whales observed on a seafloor array in the Northeast Pacific. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98:712- 721. McFadden, D. 1986. The curious half-octave shift: Evidence of a basalward migration of the traveling-wave envelope with increasing intensity. Pp. 295-312 in Applied and Basic Aspects of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, R. Salvi, D. Henderson, R.P. Hamernik, and V. Coletti (eds.). Plenum Press, New York. Miller, J.D. 1974. Effects of noise on people. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 56: 729-764. Mobley, J.R., L.M. Herman, and A.S. Frankel. 1988. Responses of wintering humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to playback of recordings of winter and summer vocalizations and of synthetic sound. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23:211-223. Mobley, J.R., Jr., R.A. Grotefendt, P.H. Forestell, and A. Frankel. 1999. Results of aerial surveys of marine mammals in the major Hawaiian islands (1993-1998). Report to the Acoustic Ther- mometry of Ocean Climate Marine Mammal Research Program (ATOC MMRP). Unpublished paper. Moore, K.E., W.A. Watkins, and P.L. Tyack. 1993. Pattern similarity in shared codas from sperm whales (Physeter catodon). Marine Mammal Science 9:1-9. Moore, S.E., M.E. Dahlheim, K.M. Stafford, C.G. Fox, H.W. graham, M.A. McDonald, and J. Thomason. 1999. Acoustic and visual detection of large whales in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-107. Munk, W., and C. Wunsch. 1979. Ocean acoustic tomography: A scheme for large-scale monitor- ing. Deep-Sea Research 26A:439-464. Munk, W., P. Worcester, and C. Wunsch. 1995. Ocean Acoustic Tomography. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, Cambridge. Myrberg, A.A., Jr. 1972. Using sound to influence the behaviour of free-ranging marine animals. Pp. 435-468 in Behaviour of Marine Animals, Vol. 2, H.E. Winn and B.L. Olla (eds). Plenum Press, New York. Myrberg, A.A., Jr. 1978. Underwater sound: Its effect on the behavior of sharks. Pp. 391-417 in Sensory Biology of Sharks, Skates and Rays, E.S. Hodgson and R.F. Mathewson (eds.). Gov- ernment Printing Office, Washington, DC. Myrberg, A.A., Jr. 1980. Ocean noise and the behavior of marine animals. Pp. 461-491 in Ad- vanced Concepts in Ocean Measurements for Marine Biology, F.P. Diemer, F.J. Vernberg, and D.V. Mirkes (eds.). University of South Carolina Press, Columbia. Myrberg, A.A., Jr. 1990. The effects of man-made noise on the behavior of marine animals. Environment International 16:575-586. Myrberg, A.A., Jr., C.R. Gordon, and A.P. Klimley. 1976. Attraction of free ranging sharks by low- frequency sound, with comments on its biological significance. Pp. 205-228 in Sound Recep- tion in Fish, A. Schuijf and A.D. Hawkins (eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1996. Our Living Oceans. Report on the Status of U.S. Living Marine Resources. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. National Research Council (NRC). 1992. Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Part- nerships. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 1994. Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 1996. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progress Since 1994-An Interim Report. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 1999. Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

OCR for page 91
96 MARINE MAMMALS AND LOW-FREQUENCY SOUND National Research Council (NRC). 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). 1999. Sounding the Depths: Supertankers, Sonar, and the Rise of Undersea Noise. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., New York. Nixon, J.C., and A. Glorig. 1961. Noise-induced permanent threshold shift at 2000 cps and 4000 cps. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 33:904-908. Pantev, M., and Ch. Pantev. 1979. Cortical auditory evoked responses under hyperbaric conditions. Pp. 241-244 in Models of the Auditory System and Related Signal Processing Techniques, M. Hoke and E. de Boer (eds.). Scandinavian Audiology Supplement 9. Plomp, R., and M.A. Bouman. 1959. Relation between hearing threshold and duration for tone pulses. Journal of the acoustical Society of America 31:749-758. Popov, V.V., and V.O. Klishin. 1998. BEG study of hearing in the common dolphin. Aquatic Mammals 24:13-20. Popov, V.V., and A.Y. Supin. 1998. Auditory evoked responses to rhythmic sound pulses in dolphins. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 183:519-524. Popov, V.V., A.Y. Supin, and V.O. Klishin. 1998. Frequency tuning of the dolphin's hearing as revealed by auditory brain-stem response with notch-noise masking. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102:3795-3801. Reeves, R.R., R.J. Hofman, G.K. Silber, and D. Wilkinson (eds.). 1996. Acoustic Deterrence of Harmful Marine Mammal-Fishery Interactions. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC. Richardson, W.J., B. Wursig, and C.R. Greene, Jr. 1986. Reactions of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, to seismic exploration in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 79:1117-1128. Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., C.I. Malme, and D.H. Thomson. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, New York. Ridgway, S.H., and W.W.L. Au. 1999. Dolphin hearing and echolocation: The bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Pp. 858-862 in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 2nd Edition, G. Adelman and B. Smith (eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York. Ridgway, S.H., and D.A. Carder. 1997. Hearing deficits measured in some Tursiops truncatus, and discovery of a deaf/mute dolphin. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101:590-594. Ridgway, S.H., and R. Howard. 1979. Dolphin lung collapse and intramuscular circulation during free diving: Evidence from nitrogen washout. Science 206:1182-1183. Ridgway, S.H., and R. Howard. 1982. Dolphins and the bends. Science 216:651. Ridgway, S.H., D. Carder, R. Smith, T. Kamolnick, and W. Elsberry. 1997. First audiogram for marine mammals in the open sea: Hearing and whistling by two white whales down to 30 atmospheres. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101:3136. Rivers, J.A. 1997. Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, vocalizations from the waters off central California. Marine Mammal Science 13 (2): 186- 195. Ross, D. 1976. Mechanics of Underwater Noise. Pergamon, New York. Saunders, J.C., Y.E. Cohen, and Y.M. Szymko. 1991. The structural and functional consequences of acoustic injury in the cochlea and peripheral auditory system: A five year update. Journal of the acoustical Society of America 90:147-155. Schlundt, C.E., J.J. Finneran, D.A. Carder, and S.H. Ridgway. 2000. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds (MTTS) of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, after exposure to intense tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (in press). Simmonds, M.P., and L.F. Lopez-Jurado. 1991. Whales and the military. Nature 351:448.

OCR for page 91
REFERENCES 97 Stafford, K.M., and C.G. Fox. 1996. Occurrence of blue and fin whales calls in the north Pacific as monitored by U.S. Navy SOSUS arrays. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100:2611. Abstract. Stafford, K.M., C.G. Fox, and D.S. Clark. 1998. Long-range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104:3616-3625. Stafford, K.M., S.L. Nieukirk, and C.G. Fox. 1999. An acoustic link between blue whales in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and the Northeast Pacific. Marine Mammal Science 15(4):1258-1268. Stephens, S.D.G., and H.M. Ballam. 1974. The song-ocular test. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology 88:1049-1059. Swartz, R.L., and R.J. Hofman. 1991. Marine Mammal and Habitat Monitoring: Requirements, Principles, Needs, and Approaches. Report prepared for Marine Mammal Commission. NTIS PB91-215046. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. Szymanski, M.D., D.E. Bain, and K.R. Henry. 1995. Auditory evoked potentials of killer whale (Orcinus orca). Pp. 1-10 in Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall (eds.). De Spil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands. Szymanski, M.D., D. Supin, A. Ya, D.E. Bain, and K.R. Henry. 1998. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) auditory evoked potentials to rhythmic clicks. Marine Mammal Science 14:676-691. Szymanski, M.D., D.E. Bain, and K. Kiehl. 1999. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) hearing: Auditory brainstem response and behavioral audiograms. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106:1134-1141. Terhune, J., and S. Turnbull. 1995. Variation in the psychometric functions and hearing thresholds of a harbour seal. Pp. 81-92 in Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, R.A. Kastelien, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall (eds.). De Spil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands. Thomas, J.A., S.R. Fisher, L.M. Ferm, and R.S. Hart. 1986. Acoustic detection of cetaceans using a towed array of hydrophores. Reports of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue) 8: 139-148. Thompson, P., L. O'Findley, T. Vidal, and W.C. O'Cummings. 1996. Underwater sounds of blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 12:288-293. Tyack, P. 1981. Interactions between singing Hawaiian humpback whales and conspecifics nearby. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 8:105-116. Tyack, P.L. 1983. Differential response of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, to playback of song or social sounds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18:251-257. Tyack, P. 1998. Acoustic communication under the sea. Pp. 163-220 in Animal Acoustic Communi- cation: Recent Technical Advances, S.L. Hopp, M.J. Owren, and C.S. Evans (eds.). Springer- Verlag, Heidelberg. Tyack, P.L., and C.W. Clark. 1998. Quick-Look Report: Playback of Low-Frequency Sound to Gray Whales Migrating Past the Central California Coast. Unpublished report. Urick, R.J. 1983. Principles of Underwater Sound. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. Urick, R.J. 1986. Ambient Noise in the Sea. Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA. Ward, W.D. 1997. Effects of high-intensity sound. Pp. 1497-1507 in Encyclopedia of Acoustics, M.J. Crocker (ed.). John Wiley & Sons, New York. Watkins, W.A. 1981. Activities and underwater sounds of fin whales. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute 33:83-117. Watkins, W.A., and W.E. Schevill. 1975. Sperm whales (Physeter catadon) react to pingers. Deep- Sea Research 22(3):123-129. Watkins, W.A., K.E. Moore, and P. Tyack. 1985. Sperm whale acoustic behaviors in the southeast Caribbean. Cetology 49: 1- 15.

OCR for page 91
98 MARINE MAMMALS AND LOW-FREQUENCY SOUND Watkins, W.A., M.A. Daher, K.M. Fristrup, T.J. Howald, and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara. 1993. Sperm whales tagged with transponders and tracked underwater by sonar. Marine Mammal Science 9(1):55-67. Watkins, W.A., M.A. Daher, G.M. Reppucci, J.E. George, D.L. Martin, N.A. DiMarzio, and D.P. Gannon. 2000. Seasonality and distribution of whale calls in the North Pacific. Oceanography 13:62-67. Yost, W.A., and M.C. Killion. 1997. Hearing thresholds. Pp. 1545-1554 in Encyclopedia of Acoustics, M.J. Crocker (ed.). Wiley, New York.