L. Culhane, ESSC chair, presented an overview of the ESSC organizational structure and activities. He explained the ESSC's terms of reference as a European Space Foundation (ESF) associated committee, its structure and external linkages, the process of selecting members, and the ESSC's activities and their outcomes, particularly concerning the need to achieve greater coherence among space programs in Europe. He explained that several ESSC members serve ex officio in various advisory committees of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Union, and so on. ESSC will have an observer status in ESA's council, which will be decided on a case-by-case basis for each council meeting.

L. Lanzerotti, CISP member and former SSB chair, presented an overview of the SSB. He noted that the SSB was chartered in 1958 as a body independent of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The chartered organization is the National Research Council (NRC), which is the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The NRC conducts studies at the request of government agencies but acts independently from the government. Therefore, its advice can be ignored; however, the NRC has earned respect throughout its history and its advice is often acted upon. NASA and Congress make requests of the SSB to prepare studies, with these requests sometimes occurring through congressional legislation. The SSB membership includes 20 to 25 researchers (primarily) and policy specialists that serve for 3-year terms. As a rule, the SSB requests that no member serve on any NASA advisory committees so as to preserve its independence from the agency. The SSB has developed linkages with other NRC boards, including the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and the Board on Physics and Astronomy. The organizational structure includes standing discipline committees, the chairs of which serve as members of the board. Other task groups are formed on an ad hoc basis. The SSB is also the adhering U.S. body to the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR).

A. Nishida, chair of the SRC of Japan and director general of ISAS, presented an overview of Japanese space entities and the SRC. He called attention to three organizations that are involved in space activities—ISAS, the National Aeronautics and Space Development Agency (NASDA), and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), which is eager to get involved in space as a way to promote industry. The Space Activities Commission is the prime minister's coordinating body for space activities, although it takes no action on science. The SRC falls under the auspices of the JSC, which was established after World War II. The members of the JSC represent all science disciplines and number about 200. The SRC is composed of about 30 members; it has a NASDA member for Earth sciences and microgravity sciences, but most of the membership (approximately two-thirds) is from universities. The JSC also has committees on astrophysics, geomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial science. The function of the JSC and its subcommittees is advisory and conceptual; so far, its impact on policy making has been weak.

The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture (Monbusho) has advisory committees on academic matters, on space science, and on high-energy physics. The subcommittee on space science is the most important in terms of decision making and will play a key role in the planned merger between Monbusho and the Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese government. Its functions concern the program operations. ISAS, NASDA, and the National Aeronautics Space Lab are among the member institutions of the space science subcommittee.

The SRC, unlike the subcommittee on space science, is removed from program operations and is therefore the appropriate body for reviewing cooperation and establishing international links.

U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science Report

J.C. Worms, ESSC staff, presented the approach and rationale for the U.S.-European study. He also described an overview of the types of cooperative arrangements explored, including NASA-ESA and

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