U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION

SUMMARY REPORT

Space Research Committee,

Science Council of Japan

European Space Science Committee,

European Science Foundation and

Committee on International Space Programs

Space Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.



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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION SUMMARY REPORT Space Research Committee, Science Council of Japan European Space Science Committee, European Science Foundation and Committee on International Space Programs Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C.

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committees responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT SPACE RESEARCH COMMITTEE A. NISHIDA, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Chair H. HIRABAYASHI, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science S. IKEUCHI, Nagoya University M. KATO, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science Y. KAWASAKI, Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences Y. KONDO, Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University T. KOSUGI, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science K. MAKISHIMA, University of Tokyo Y. MATOGAWA, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science S. MIURA, National Space Development Agency A. MORIOKA, Tohoku University H. MURAKAMI, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science F. NAGASE, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science E. SAGAWA, Communications Research Laboratory NASUO SATO, National Institute of Polar Research NOBUO SATO, Japan Meteorological Agency S. TANAKA, Remote Sensing Technology Center T. TSUDA, Kyoto University K. TSURUDA, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science S. WATANABE, Daido Industrial College T. YAMAMOTO, Nagoya University K. YAMISHITA, Nagoya University

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT EUROPEAN SPACE SCIENCE COMMITTEE JOHN LEONARD CULHANE, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, London, United Kingdom, Chair European Earth Observation Panel ROBERT J. GURNEY, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom, Chair WERNER ALPERS, Institut für Meereskunde, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany ANNY CAZENAVE, Laboratoire en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), Toulouse, France MARIE-LISE CHANIN, Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC) Office, Verrières, France HANS SÜNKEL, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria European Space Physical Science Panel JOHAN A.M. BLEEKER, Institute for Space Research, Space Research Organization Netherlands-Utrecht, The Netherlands, Chair JOHN LEONARD CULHANE, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, London, United Kingdom ALVARO GIMÉNEZ, L.A.E.F.F., Madrid, Spain GERHARD HAERENDEL, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany NIELS LUND, Danish Space Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark PHILIPPE MASSON, Université de Paris Sud, Orsay, France MARTIN J.L. TURNER, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom STEFANO VITALE, Università di Trento, Trento, Italy JOHN C. ZARNECKI, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom ANDRZEJ ZDZIARSKI, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland European Microgravity Panel JEAN-CLAUDE LEGROS, Microgravity Research Center, ULB, Bruxelles, Belgium, Chair AUGUSTO COGOLI, ETH Technopark, Zurik, Switzerland JEAN-JACQUES FAVIER, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Grenoble, France GERDA HORNECK, DLR, Institut für Luft und Raumfahrtmedizin, Köln, Germany JEAN-CLAUDE WORMS, ESSC Executive Secretary, ENSPS, Strasbourg, France HANS U. KAROW, ESF Scientific Secretary, Strasbourg, France

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL SPACE PROGRAMS EUGENE B. SKOLNIKOFF, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair FRAN BAGENAL, University of Colorado LENNARD A. FISK, University of Michigan MARTIN A. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute BILL GREEN, former member, U.S. House of Representatives JOHN P. HUGHES, Rutgers University ADRIAN LEBLANC, Baylor College of Medicine THOMAS R. LOVELAND, USGS EROS Data Center NORMAN P. NEUREITER, Texas Instruments (retired) LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, Lucent Technologies (ex officio) Staff PAMELA WHITNEY, Study Director CARMELA CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Program Assistant

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT SPACE STUDIES BOARD CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair MARK R. ABBOTT, regon State University FRAN BAGENAL, University of Colorado DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado ROBERT E. CLELAND, University of Washington MARILYN L. FOGEL, Carnegie Institution of Washington BILL GREEN, former member, U.S. House of Representatives JOHN H. HOPPS, JR., Morehouse College CHRISTIAN J. JOHANNSEN, Purdue University RICHARD G. KRON, University of Chicago JONATHAN I. LUNINE, University of Arizona ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, Columbia University GARY J. OLSEN, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign MARY JANE OSBORN, University of Connecticut Health Center GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation JOYCE E. PENNER, University of Michigan THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology PEDRO L. RUSTAN, JR., Ellipso Inc. GEORGE L. SISCOE, Boston University EUGENE B. SKOLNIKOFF, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MITCHELL SOGIN, Marine Biological Laboratory NORMAN E. THAGARD, Florida State University ALAN M. TITLE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center RAYMOND VISKANTA, Purdue University PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University JOHN A. WOOD, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian ERIM International, Inc., Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corp. SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California, Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA M. McDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics retired) M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director (through July 1999) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director

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U.S.-EUROPEAN-JAPANESE WORKSHOP ON SPACE COOPERATION: SUMMARY REPORT Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Roger R. Anderson, University of Iowa, Peter M. Banks, Veridian ERIM International, Inc., Hugh S. Hudson, University of California, San Diego, and Solar Physics Research Corporation, Chris J. Johannsen, Purdue University, and Peter W. Voorhees, Northwestern University. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring task group and the NRC.

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