is a very dynamic, 1,500-firm information technology sector. Almost no one claims to be doing R&D, and yet it is a rapidly developing, changing industrial economy.

Fritz Kokesh, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: "Directed research" is an interesting term. To me it implies that there is a purpose in mind if it's successful. But the comments here assume that there is another feature to it that assumes that it's not frontier research. And the two aspects can be separate. To illustrate, if someone can see a purpose for something that's still occurring at the frontiers of science, then that should be considered every bit as basic as something that can't be seen.

Christopher Hill: I agree with you on that.

Thomas Manuel, Council for Chemical Research, Inc.: It's important to iterate some of the things that are implicit in some of the talks here that would refer to what I call a "social dimension" of collaboration. And the first one is that if you look at the agenda of this workshop, it's sliced into bilateral pieces. The fact is that most collaboration and the most fruitful and the greatest trend for the future is going to be tri- if not multilateral. This is implicit in Professor Wakeham's presentation.

Second, collaboration is a contact sport, and it's an iterative activity. So not only does one need patience in a particular relationship, one needs to try again and again and practice it. The third thing intersects directly with Dr. Hill's observation that everything fell apart in the late 1970s. The Council for Chemical Research attempts to continually address these types of needs and opportunities as it goes forward in many directions and as the picture changes. So there is a need for all of us to continue to work together in this area, seek ways to find new collaborations, and to not get fixed into any particular paradigm of the moment.

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