between industry and national laboratories needed to have more value to each partner in order to justify the full cost. This is the time period when fruitful industrial-national laboratory collaborations really began to flourish. Congress ended TTI because it wanted the federal share of joint work to be funded out of mission programs rather than as set-asides. The post-TTI model ensures that the work is of value to a federal program manager and is not merely "welfare" to the laboratory or the corporation.

Like many of the other national laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories is committed to maintaining its scientific excellence through continued collaborations with industry and academia. The most shining example of a Sandia and industry collaboration is the longstanding cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) that Sandia has had with the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Together, Sandia and Goodyear are developing and validating tools for finite-element analysis for predicting thermal and mechanical responses of structures. The CRADA also includes using a variety of analytical techniques to study the structure and properties of various materials used in tire fabrication to gain an understanding of the aging and reliability of elastomers and developing methods for predicting material lifetimes. For Goodyear, these tools can be used to simulate and predict manufacturing elements such as shaping and curing processes and performance characteristics such as rolling tire resistance and hydroplaning. For Sandia and DOE, the research performed for predicting materials lifetimes is highly synergistic with work being done to support Sandia's science-based stockpile stewardship mission.

Nissim Calderon, Goodyear vice president of corporate research, as quoted in the October 1996 issue of Mechanical Engineering, explained the dual benefits in algebraic terms. "You greatly enhance the chances of success by making it a win-win situation for both the lab and the company. Say Goodyear has a two-component project, A and B, while Sandia has another project characterized by A and C. Why not do A together and share the risk, share the effort, share the cost? And while we're at it, their scientists rub elbows with ours, and naturally they exchange expertise and suggest changes in current procedures, so the laboratory is also acting as a consultant, while the lab personnel get a reality check from business."

With this as its prototype for laboratory—industry research, Sandia actively encourages industrial interactions that are mission related and enriching to the scientific base of the missions and to Sandia's technical staff. Sandia, in both its activities and structure, supports partnerships in a variety of ways. For example, Sandia is the major contributor to the development of an industrial research park located directly outside its gates: the Sandia Science and Technology Park. In another program, individual Sandia executives are assigned "ownership" or responsibility for each major corporation with whom Sandia does business, giving the company a high-level contact at Sandia who can smooth and hasten communication by acting as ombudsman, advocate, and negotiator.

University Collaborations

Regarding its relationship with academia, Sandia recognizes that partnering with universities is essential for maintaining Sandia's excellence in state-of-the-art science, for being able to tackle and solve complex problems, and to maintain the ability to recruit the best new scientists and engineers. Partnering with universities is an official strategic policy—Sandia has chosen to focus on a few key campuses (about 20) and has made a significant effort to build a relationship between the leaders of the universities and the Sandia executive management team. Top management at Sandia are campus executives, and each is tasked with developing a high-level relationship with a specific university. The universities that Sandia chose to focus on included those in which Sandia had a strong past experience of research interactions, a successful history of recruiting, effective institutional ties, and common

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