References

AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges). 1998. AAMC Data Book: Statistical Information Related to Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals, Table D4. Washington, D.C.: AAMC.

ASTHO (Association of State and Territorial Health Officials). 1995. Managed Care Monograph Series: Introduction to Managed Care for State Health Agencies. ASTHO Primary Care Project, Bureau of Primary Health Care. Washington, D.C.: ASTHO.


Ballow, C.H., and J.J. Schentag. 1992. Trends in antibiotic utilization and bacterial resistance: Report of the NNRSG. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 15:37S–42S.

Barden, L.S., S.F. Dowell, B. Schwartz, and C. Lackey. 1998. Current attitudes regarding use of antimicrobial agents: Results from physicians' and parents' focus group discussions. Clinical Pediatrics 37:665–671.


CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1995. Prevention and managed care: Opportunities for managed care organizations, purchasers of health care, and public health agencies. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44(RR-14):1–12.

CDC. 1998. Adoption of hospital policies for prevention of perinatal Group B streptococcal disease—United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 47(32): 665–670.

Chernew, M., A.M. Fendrick, and R.A. Hirth. 1997. Managed care and medical technology: Implications for cost growth . Health Affairs 16:196–206.


DVA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), Office of Research and Development. 1997. Improving Health Care for Veterans. Annual Report . Washington, D.C.: DVA.

DVA, Veterans Health Administration. 1998. Journey of Change II: Annual Report and Strategic Forecast. Washington, D.C.: DVA.


Garber, A.M., M.C. Weinstein, G.W. Torrance, and M.S. Kamlet. 1996. Theoretical Foundations of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.


Horn, S. D., P.D. Sharkey, D. M. Tracy, C.E. Horn, B. James, and F. Goodwin. 1996. Intended and unintended consequences of HMO cost-containment strategies: Results



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Managed Care Systems and Emerging Infections: Challenges and Opportunities for Strengthening Surveillance, Research, and Prevention, Workshop Summary References AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges). 1998. AAMC Data Book: Statistical Information Related to Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals, Table D4. Washington, D.C.: AAMC. ASTHO (Association of State and Territorial Health Officials). 1995. Managed Care Monograph Series: Introduction to Managed Care for State Health Agencies. ASTHO Primary Care Project, Bureau of Primary Health Care. Washington, D.C.: ASTHO. Ballow, C.H., and J.J. Schentag. 1992. Trends in antibiotic utilization and bacterial resistance: Report of the NNRSG. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 15:37S–42S. Barden, L.S., S.F. Dowell, B. Schwartz, and C. Lackey. 1998. Current attitudes regarding use of antimicrobial agents: Results from physicians' and parents' focus group discussions. Clinical Pediatrics 37:665–671. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1995. Prevention and managed care: Opportunities for managed care organizations, purchasers of health care, and public health agencies. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44(RR-14):1–12. CDC. 1998. Adoption of hospital policies for prevention of perinatal Group B streptococcal disease—United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 47(32): 665–670. Chernew, M., A.M. Fendrick, and R.A. Hirth. 1997. Managed care and medical technology: Implications for cost growth . Health Affairs 16:196–206. DVA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), Office of Research and Development. 1997. Improving Health Care for Veterans. Annual Report . Washington, D.C.: DVA. DVA, Veterans Health Administration. 1998. Journey of Change II: Annual Report and Strategic Forecast. Washington, D.C.: DVA. Garber, A.M., M.C. Weinstein, G.W. Torrance, and M.S. Kamlet. 1996. Theoretical Foundations of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. Horn, S. D., P.D. Sharkey, D. M. Tracy, C.E. Horn, B. James, and F. Goodwin. 1996. Intended and unintended consequences of HMO cost-containment strategies: Results

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Managed Care Systems and Emerging Infections: Challenges and Opportunities for Strengthening Surveillance, Research, and Prevention, Workshop Summary Rosenbaum, S., B.M. Smith, P.Shin, M.H. Zakheim, K. Shaw, C.A. Sonosky, and L. Repasch. 1997. Negotiating the New Health Care System: A Nationwide Study of Medicaid Managed Care Contracts, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University Medical Center. Sachs, G. 1997. Quest Diagnostics Incorporated.' A Turnaround Story . New York: Goldman Sachs Research. Sands, K., G. Vineyard, J. Livingston, C. Christiansen, and R. Platt. 1999. Efficient identification of postdischarge surgical site infections: Use of automated pharmacy dispensing information, administrative data, and medical record information. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179(2):434–441. Sands, K., G. Vineyard, and R. Platt. 1996. Surgical site infections occurring after hospital discharge. Journal of Infectious Diseases 173(4):963–970. Schentag, J.J., J.R. Cart, M.H. Adelman, M.C. Birmingham, G.S. Zimmer, and J.A. Paladino. 1996. Formulary management versus disease management. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 5(Suppl. 1):1–6. Schentag, J.J., J.M. Hyatt, J.R. Carr, J.A. Paladino, M.C. Birmingham, G.S. Zimmer, and T.J. Cumbo. 1998. Genesis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), how treatment of MRSA infection has selected for VREF, and the importance of antibiotic management and infection control. Clinical Infectious Diseases 26:1204–1214. Schuchat, A. 1999. Group B streptococcus. Lancet 353:51–56. Wilson, N.J., and K.W. Kizer. 1997. The VA health care system: An unrecognized national safety net. Health Affairs. 16(4):200–204.

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