CAMAS (Completeness and Accuracy of Managed-Care Administrative Data Sets):

A single study involving the accuracy and completeness of administrative data sets, funded by a grant from the California HealthCare Foundation to CALINX (California Information Exchange).


A per member, per month payment to a health care provider or health plan for each member enrolled, regardless of the amount of care that a member requires.

CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services):

A cost-sharing program that helps eligible military families and retirees and retiree families pay for civilian care when military care is not available. CHAMPUS is now called TRICARE Standard in most of the country.

Clinical practice guidelines:

Systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients with decision making about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.

Clinical research:

Investigations aimed at translating basic, fundamental science into medical practice.

Clinical trials:

As used in this workshop summary, research with human volunteers to establish the safety and efficacy of a drug, such as an antibiotic or a vaccine.


One qualified or engaged in the clinical practice of medicine, psychiatry, or psychology, as distinguished from one specializing in laboratory or research techniques in the same fields.


The condition in which the functioning of the body or a part of the body is interfered with or damaged. In a person with an infectious disease, the infectious agent that has entered the body causes it to function abnormally in some way or ways. The type of abnormal functioning that occurs is the disease. Usually the body will show some signs and symptoms of the problems that it is having with functioning. Disease should not be confused with infection.


As used in this workshop summary, the probability of benefit to individuals in a defined population from a medical technology applied for a given medical problem under defined conditions of use.

Emerging infections:

Any infectious disease that has come to medical attention within the last two decades or threatens to increase in the near future (IOM, 1992). Many times, such diseases exist in nature as zoonoses and emerge as human pathogens only when humans come in contact with a formerly isolated animal population, such as monkeys in a rain forest that are no longer isolated because of deforestation. Drug-resistant organisms could also be included as emerging infections since they exist because of human influence. Some recent examples of agents responsible for emerging infections include human immunodeficiency virus, Ebola virus, and multi-drugresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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