Program Announcement (PA):

A public announcement describing the goals and scope of a proposed scientific project awaiting approval from a specific scientific organization.

Prophylactic antibiotics:

Antibiotics that are administered before evidence of infection with the intention of warding off disease.

Public Health Service Act of 1944:

An act to consolidate and revise the laws relating to the U.S. Public Health Service.

Requests for Applications (RFA):

A public announcement from a scientific organization requesting applications from qualified people to perform a specific research assignment.


The presence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in blood or other tissues.

Staff model HMO (health maintenance organization):

An HMO in which practitioners are salaried employees of the HMO. The practitioners may also receive a bonus or other incentive income based on the performance of the HMO.

Surveillance systems:

Used in this workshop summary to refer to data collection and record-keeping to track the emergence and spread of disease-causing organisms such as antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Tertiary care:

The aspect of inpatient care dealing with illnesses or conditions requiring specialized techniques, such as coronary artery bypass surgery, renal hemodialysis, and treatment of severe burns.


A preparation of living, attenuated, or killed bacteria or viruses, fractions thereof, or synthesized or recombinant antigens identical or similar to those found in the disease-causing organisms that is administered to raise immunity to a particular microorganism.

Zoonotic disease or infection:

An infection or infectious disease that may be transmitted from vertebrate animals (such as rodents) to humans.

Definitions for this glossary were compiled from the following sources:

Academic Health Centers in the Managed Care Environment. 1995. Korn D., C.J. McLaughlin, M. Osterweis, Eds. Washington, D.C.: Association of Academic Health Centers.

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (date of last update: November 4, 1998). Available at

American Academy of Family Physicians (date of last update: July 23, 1998). Available at

American Academy of Pediatrics (date of last update: March 26, 1999). Available at

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