implications for coverage, Pharmaco-economics 11(June):538–549, 1997.


G.Connolly and D.Turner-Bowker, Massachusetts Department of Public Health Tobacco Control Program, personal communication, November 18 and 22, 1999, citing National Vital Statistics Report 47(10), November 19, 1998 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).


The history of youth access proscriptions and the Synar Amendment is reviewed in Institute of Medicine, Growing Up Tobacco Free, op. cit., chapter 7; the FDA regulation is available on line at


Jason L.A., Ji P.Y., Anes M.D., and Birkhead S.H., Active enforcement of cigarette control laws in the prevention of cigarette sales to minors, Journal of the American Medical Association 266(22):3159–3161, 1991; DiFranza J.R., Carlson R.R., and Caisse R.E., Reducing youth access to tobacco, Tobacco Control 1:92, 1992; Forster J.L., Murray D.M., Wolfson M., Blaine T.M., Wagenaar A.C., and Hennrikus D.J., The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco, American Journal of Public Health 88:1193–1198, 1998; for a review, see Institute of Medicine, Growing Up Tobacco Free, op. cit., chapter 7.


Rigotti N.A., DiFranza J.R., Chang Y., Tisdale T., Kemp B., and Singer D.E. The effect of enforcing tobacco-sales laws on adolescents’ access to tobacco and smoking behavior. New England Journal of Medicine 334:1044–1051, 1997.


DiFranza J.R. and Rigotti N.A. Impediments to the enforcement of youth access laws. Tobacco Control 8:152–155, 1999.


DiFranza J.R., Celebucki C.C., and Seo H.G. A model for the efficient and effective enforcement of tobacco sales laws. American Journal of Public Health 88:1100–1101, 1998.


Glantz S.A. Editorial: Preventing tobacco use—the youth access trap. American Journal of Public Health 86:156–158, 1996.


Institute of Medicine, Growing Up Tobacco Free, op. cit.


The theory and some examples are described in Institute of Medicine, Improving Health in the Community: A Role for Performance Monitoring, J.S.Durch, L.A.Bailey, and M.A.Stoto, eds., Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997, and applied to tobacco control on pp. 11–17 of Taking Action to Reduce Tobacco Use (see Note 2). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Best Practices report (see Note 5) is a much more detailed application, with state-by-state benchmarks.


Davis R.M., An overview of tobacco measures, Tobacco Control 7(Suppl.):S36–S40, 1998; Wakefield M.A. and Chaloupka F.J., Improving the measurement and use of tobacco control “inputs,” Tobacco Control 7:333–335, 1998; Alciati M.H., Frosh M., Green S.B., et al., State laws on youth access to tobacco in the United States: Measuring their extensiveness with a new rating system, Tobacco Control 7:345–352, 1998; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Best Practices…, op. cit.; National Cancer Policy Board, Taking Action…, op. cit., pp. 11–18; Center for the Advancement of Health, Development of Tobacco Performance Indicators for Managed Care, Washington, D.C.: Author (

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement