of the angiosperms. His use of the fossil record of angiosperms as a model in his evolutionary synthesis was hampered because in the 1940s the paradigm in angiosperm paleobotany was to match fossils, especially leaves, to extant genera (Dilcher, 1974). The successes of the angiosperm paleobotanists (e.g., D. Axelrod, H. Becker, E. W. Berry, R. Brown, R. Chaney, and H. MacGinitie, and many others for 100 years before them) were judged by their ability to match a high percentage of fossils to living genera (Fig. 1). Once the identifications were made to living genera, their focus was on questions of phytogeography and paleoclimate. This meant that almost no fossil angiosperms were recognized as extinct; it was quite impossible to focus questions of plant evolution on the fossil record of the angiosperms in 1950 as George Gaylord Simpson had done with the fossil vertebrate record in his classic Tempo and Mode in Evolution in 1944 (Simpson, 1944).