living angiosperms. Now, with the study of megafossils, mesofossils, and microfossils all yielding new information about the characters of the early angiosperms, there are huge amounts of new data available each year. In particular, because they had not been studied before, mesofossils are adding a new set of valuable information that is changing our concept of early angiosperm diversity. The Lower Cretaceous sediments from Portugal have yielded 105 different kinds of flowers with 13 associated pollen types (Friis et al., 1999). The lower Upper Cretaceous sediments from New Jersey are yielding a large number of new taxa (Nixon and Crepet, 1993; Crepet and Nixon, 1998a, b; Gandolfo et al., 1998a, b, c; Crepet et al., 2000). The application of character-based analyses of fossil angiosperm remains has been used (Magallón et al., 1999) to demonstrate the presence of systematic groups of angiosperms through time (Fig. 4).