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TABLE 1. Invasive taxa that evolved after intertaxon hybridization

Derived taxon

Parent taxa

Family

Habit of hybrid lineage

Site of taxon's origin

Evidence beyond morphology

Reference

How stabilized?

Invasiveness

Occurs in human disturbed areas?

Amelanchier erecta

A. humulis × A. “clade B”

Rosaceae

Shrub

N. America

n

Campbell et al. (1997)

Agamospermy

Highly invasive relative to congeners

Yes

Bromus hordeaceus

B. arvensis and B. scoparius

Poaceae

Annual herb

Europe

c, i, n

Ainouche and Bayer (1996)

Allopolyploid

Aggressive ruderal

Yes

Cardamine insueta

C. rivularis × C. amara

Brassicaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

c, n, o

Urbanska et al. (1997)

Allopolyploid

Successfully colonizing disturbed sites

Yes

Cardamine schulzii

C. rivularis × C. amara

Brassicaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

c, n, o

Urbanska et al. (1997)

Allopolyploid

Successfully colonizing disturbed sites

Yes

Circaea × intermedia

C. alpina × C. lutetiana

Onagraceae

Perennial herb

Europe

as, s

Stace (1975)

Clonal growth

Sometimes a weed, often occurs in absence of one or both parents

Yes

Fallopia × bohemica

F. japonica * × F. sachalinensis*

Polygonaceae

Shrub

Europe

c, n, s

Bailey et al. (1995)

Clonal growth

Noxious weed

Yes

Glyceria × pedicillata

G. fluitans × G. notata

Poaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

s

Stace (1975), (1991)

Clonal growth

“Example of a successful … sterile hybrid”

Yes

Helianthus annuus spp. texanus

H. annuus* × H. debilis spp. cucumerifolius

Asteraceae

Annual herb

N. America

c, n, o

Rieseberg (1990)

Recombinant

Weed of disturbed areas

Yes

Mentha × verticillata

M. aquatica × M. arvensis

Lamiaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

s

Stace (1991)

Clonal growth

Often in the absence of either parent

Yes

Nasturtium sterile

N. microphyllum × N. officinale

Brassicaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

c

Bleeker et al. (1997)

Recombinant

Disturbed area weeds

Yes

Oenothera glazioviana (O. erythrosepala, O. lamarckiana)

O. hookeri* × O. biennis*

Onagraceae

Biennial herb

Europe

as, c

Cleland (1972)

Permanent translocation heterozygosity

Weed

Yes

Senecio squalidus

S. aethensis* × S. chrysanthemumifolius*

Asteraceae

Perennial herb

Europe

i, o

Abbott and Milne (1995); Abbott et al. (2000)

Recombinant

Rapidly spreading

Yes

Senecio vulgaris var. hibernicus

S. v. var. vulgaris × S. squalidus*

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Europe

as, c, i

Abbott (1992)

Recombinant

Rapidly becoming ubiquitous

Yes

Sorghum almum

S. propinquum* × S. bicolor*

Poaceae

Perennial herb

S. America

c, n

Paterson et al. (1995)

Allopolyploid

Weed

Yes

Spartina anglica

S. alterniflora* × S. maritima

Poaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

C, i

Gray et al. (1991)

Allopolyploid, clonal growth

Noxious weed

Yes

Stachys × ambigua

S. palustris × S. sylvatica

Lamiaceae

Perennial herb

Europe

C, s

Stace (1975)

Clonal growth

Weed

Yes

Tragopogon mirus

T. dubius* × T. porrifolius*

Asteraceae

Biennial herb

N. America

c, i, n, o

Novak et al. (1991)

Allopolyploid

Substantial increase in range and numbers

Yes

Tragopogon miscellus

T. dubius * × T. pratensis*

Asteraceae

Biennial herb

N. America

c, i, n, o

Novak et al. (1991)

Allopolyploid

Substantial increase in range and numbers

Yes

as, Artificial synthesis; c, cytological; i, isozymes; n, nuclearDNA; o, organelle DNA; s, full or partial sterility.

* Signifies non-natives.



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