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APPENDIX C: LEXICON l Technology is in its broadest sense the organization of both empirical and theoretical knowledge into a consistent and systematic entity. The entity may take the specific form of equipment or devices, but also encompasses ''how-to-do," including the organization of work and also computer programs. Research and development (R&D) is the effort that creates the organization of knowledge into devices or systems previously defined as technology. The research and development process means the creation and beneficial application of technology. Innovation is a very broad term that generally means the introduction of something new with a particular connotation of the commercial application of an idea. There is a natural association of the term innovation with the R&D process because the availability of and uses for technology are so pervasive in our society. The terms "innovation" and "research and development process" are often used interchangeably. Technology transfer means the adaptation of technology into practical use independently of the source. In this sense, technology transfer is an element of the research and development process. 43
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