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THE ROLES OF GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE MARITIME INDUSTRIES An Interim Report of the Committee on Strategies to Improve R&D and Its Implementation in the Maritime Industries Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1986

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NOTICE The prod ect that i s the subj ect of th i s report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine . The members of the committee respons ible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This report represents work supported by Cooperative Agreement No. N00014-82-C-0032 between the Department of the Interior and the National Academy of Sciences. Limited copies are avail able from Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D. C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America ii

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COMMITTEE ON STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE R&D AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRIES George F. Mechlin, Jr., Chairman (NAE) Westinghouse Electric Corp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Daniel Brand Charles River Associates, Inc. Boston, Massachusetts William A. Creelman~ Marine Consultant St. Louis, Missouri Jose Femenia SUNY Maritime College Bronx, New York Ernst Frankel Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts Andrew E. Gibson American Automar, Inc. Washington, D e C ~ William J. Harris (NAE) Texas A&M University College Station, Texas John H. Leeper Phillips Cartner & Co. Alexandria, Virginia Staff Charles A. Book Nan Assistant Director for Programs Resigned from the Committee, August, 1985. **Resigned from the Committee, February, 1986. iii Frank W. Nolan, Jr. ITO (retired) Essex Fells, New Jersey Edwin J. Petersen Todd Pacific Shipyards Corp. San Pedro, California Milton Pikarsky (NAE) City College of New York New York, New York Robert N. Steiner Port Authority of NY/NJ New York, New York Robert J. Taylor** Exxon International (retired) Satellite Beach, Florida John F. Wing Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. Bethesda, Maryland H. Peter Young American President Lines, Ltd. Oakland, California

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MARINE BOARD of the COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 8ram1ette McClelland, Chairman (NAE) McClelland Engineers, Inc. Houston, Texas William C. Webster, Vice Chairman University of California Berkeley, California Roger D. Anderson Cox's Wholesale Seafood, Inc. Tampa, Florida Robert D. Ballard Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts William M. Benkert U.S. Coast Guard (retired) McLean, Virginia Kenneth A. Blenkarn Amoco Production Company Tulsa, Oklahoma Donald F. Boesch Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Chauvin, Louisiana H. Ray Shannon, Jr. (NAE) Exxon Production Research Houston, Texas Robert G. Dean (NAE) University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Charles D. Hollister Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts Ralph D. Cooper, Director Charles A. Bookman, Asst. Donald W. Perkins, Asst. Richard W. Rumte, Senior Director Director Staff Officer STAFF Resigned from the Marine Board, February, 1986. 1V Peter Jaquith Saint John Shipbuilding, Ltd. New Brunswi Ok, Canada Kenneth S. hamlet URS Dalton Washington, D.C. Don E. Kash University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma William M. Nicholson U.S. Navy (retired) Annapolis, Maryland Ernest L. Perry Port of Los Angeles (retired) Sun City, Arizona Richard J. Seymour University of California La Jolla, California William H. Silcox Chevron Corporation (retired) San Francisco, California Richard T. Soper Sea-Land Service, Inc. Iselin, New Jersey Robert J. Taylor Exxon International (retired) Satellite Beach, Florida Martin J. Finerty, Jr., Staff Officer Doris C. Holmes, Admin. Associate Joyce B. Somerville, Admin. Secretary Aurore Bleck, Senior Secretary

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_REWORD This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936. The act fosters development and encourages the maintenance of the U.S. merchant marine by providing that the United States shall have a merchant marine (~) sufficient to carry its domestic water-borne commerce and a substantial portion of the water-borne export and import foreign commerce of the United States and to provide shipping service essential for maintaining the flow of such domestic and foreign water-borne commerce at all times, (b) capable of serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency, (c) owned and operated under the United States flag by citizens of the United States insofar as may be practicable, (d) composed of the best-equipped, safest, and most suitable types of vessels, constructed in the United States and manned with a trained and efficient citizen personnel, and (e) supplemented by efficient facilities for ship-building and ship repair. This national maritime policy has been implemented through direct and indirect subsidies, promotional programs, research and development (R&D), and in other ways. While the specific elements of government maritime programs have been altered over the years to address conditions of the times, the underlying policy remains essentially unchanged. Fifty years after this act was passed, the U.S. maritime industries are undergoing unprecedented change as the result of an eroding U.S. competitive position in world shipping and trade, deregulation of the transportation industries, and increasingly fierce competition for discretionary-government funds. In the face of these changed (and changing) circumstances, it is appropriate to assess the programs that implement national maritime policy. v

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This report, prepared at the request of the Maritime Administration (MarAd), addresses the question of the importance of fostering the development and application of technology in the maritime industries (i.e., shipbuilding, ship operating, marine terminal operations, and inland waterway operations), and the roles of industry and government in this. It is an interim report of a larger assessment of the health and status of R&D in support of enhanced productivity and international competitiveness in U.S. maritime industries. This report addresses the R&D process in the maritime industries in a very broad sense with the intent of including all aspects of the creation and commercial application of technology, ideas, and concepts that contribute to equipment or operations relevant to the maritime industries. The assessment is being conducted by a committee appointed by the National Research Council and operating under the auspices of the Marine Board. Members of the committee were selected with regard for the expertise necessary for the assessment, and to achieve a balance of experience and viewpoints on transportation technology development and application in general, and in the maritime industries in particular. Committee members' backgrounds span the fields of R&D management, users of technology (ship operation, shipbuilding, ports/terminals, and inland waterways), technology development (industry and academia), technology transfer, government maritime policy, and R&D in other industries. Biographies of the committee members appear in Appendix A. The principle guiding the constitution of the committee and its work, consistent with the policy of the National Research Council, was not to exclude the bias that might accompany expertise vital to the study, but to seek balance and fair treatment. This interim report concludes the f irst phase of the committee' s activities in which working groups of the committee prepared background papers on the state of technology development and application in each of the economic sectors being addressed. Members of the working groups made a substantial contribution to the committee's deliberation; they are listed in Appendix B. The background papers reviewed industry status and identified needs. The development and application of technologies relevant to the needs, and the roles of industry and government in addressing these needs were then assessed. The reports of the working groups support and substantiate the interim report. ~ Cringle copies of the working papers are available from the Marine Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C. 20418 . Hi

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An overall objective of the committee, extending beyond this interim report, is to identify, appraise, and recommend alternative approaches to improving the health and status of R&D in the maritime industries . From an evaluation of the bus iness climate of the maritime industries, an examination of the existing R&D programs in and for the industries, and an estimate of the effects of public sector policy and private sector business strategy, the committee will synthesize a set of predictions as to who the future sponsors of maritime industrial R&9 might be (or might not be) and what the expected business and national benefits of such R&D might be (or might not be). The committee will also consider the role of current or new financial incentives, existing or new organizations, and also more aggressive government, industry, or collaborative sponsorship and facilitation of merit ime technology development and application. An important judgmental input to this is an evaluation of the national consensus concerning the future need for a U.S. maritime industry. Beyond its purely naval aspects, this consensus appears to be both vague and wandering. The committee's final report will be publicly available early in 1987. George F. llechlin Chai rman Nil

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CONTENTS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Private ~~- owl ^e Public Sector Roles Discussion of the MarAd R&D Program Recommended Changes in Direction THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT IN THE R&D PROCESS 3. U.S. MARITIME INDUSTRIES: STATUS, TRENDS, AND NEEDS At aPt'~ Needs and Opportunities Shipbuilding Ship Operating Marine.Terminals Inland Waterways Other Considerations 4. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRIES . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ em U.S. Shipbuilding Industry U.S* Ship Operating Industry Containerization Effective Mann; no Ship Management and Handling U.S. Marine Terminal Industry Channel Depth --~-~--~ee~~-~-~--~ e Labor-Management Relations ..~ e- Equipment and Facilities --~-~---~.e.~-~- Computer Systems . ~ ~ ~ ~.~ ~ R~~1 Lo TOm; null ~ U.S. Inland Waterways Industry 5. CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT MARITIME R&D ............................................ APPENDIX A: BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS APPENDIX B: WORK GROUPS OF THE COMMITTEE APPENDIX C: LEXICON ~0 10 11 12 12 ~2 13 14 14 15 15 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 27 27 31 ;,c 35 41 43

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